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All articles (2009 up to now)

On the validity of the genus Strandzhia Georgiev & Glöer, 2013 (Gastropoda: Bythinellidae)

2024   ZooNotes 244: 1-2: DILIAN GEORGIEV, PETER GLÖER

Abstract. The genus Strandzhia Georgiev & Glöer, 2013 (Gastropoda: Bythinellidae) was described from the Strandzha Mountain area in southeastern Bulgaria, with its type species, S. bythinellopenia Georgiev & Glöer, 2013. The species was initially found in a spring near the village of Mladezhko, coexisting with Bythinella dedovi (Glöer & Georgiev 2011). This article addresses the critique by Jaszczyńska et al. (2024), who question the validity of the genus Strandzhia based on two key points: the examination of male specimens from the type locality revealing a penis morphology typical of the genus Grossuana Radoman, 1983, and the sequencing of these specimens confirming their identity with Grossuana. They consequently question the expertise of the original authors regarding penis morphology, concluding the genus is invalid. However, our studies involved dissecting nine male specimens of Strandzhia, confirmed the reported penis morphology. We assert the validity of the genus Strandzhia and the existence of S. bythinellopenia at its type locality, alongside Bythinella and Grossuana species. Future genetic studies are essential for specimens exhibiting the characteristic penis morphology of Strandzhia.

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A potential Bio corridor for bears? New data on the occurrence of Ursus arctos (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Eastern Balkan Mountains


Abstract. In the present study we provide data on the presence of a Brown bear specimen in the Eastern Stara Planina (Eastern Balkan). We obtained camera-trap images and photographs of the footprints of bears from the region of Varbishki and Rishki passes (Varbishki Prohod and Rishki Prohod). The locations were positioned at over 100 km from the easternmost border of the core population of bears in the central Stara Planina. Our data indicate a potential bio corridor allowing at least for young bears to migrate east along the mountain.

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Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodida) in Sakar Mountains, SE Bulgaria


Abstract. Eight species of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) are reported in Bulgarian part of Sakar Mountains. Of the species found, Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus, 1756, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878, Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) and Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 are widespread species in Bulgaria, while Haemaphysalis inermis Birula, 1895, Hae. parva (Neumann, 1897), R. turanicus Pomerantsev, 1936 and Hyalomma aegyptium Linnaeus, 1758 are less common and distributed mainly in the southern or southeastern regions of the country. It appears that R. turanicus substitutes the widespread tick species R. bursa Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878 in the studied habitats of Sakar Mountains.

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First finding of rare endemic species Cernosvitovia biserialis (Černosvitov, 1937) since 1967 year from Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes 242: 1-4: HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

Abstract. Identifying the earthworm material recently collected from pre-Balkan hill zone resulted in discovered new record of rare Balkan endemic species from Cernosvitovia biserialis (Černosvitov, 1937) since 1967. This is the northern finding of the species from Bulgaria. The paper also provided information about distribution, zoogeography and ecology of this taxon.

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Stress on stress response in wild and farmed Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819) from Sozopol, Black Sea (Bulgaria)


Abstract. As a continuation of our previous research, wild and farmed mussels from the town of Sozopol, located on the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coast, were collected to assess and compare the survival rates (stress on stress response, SoS) as a biomarker for the multi-stressor environment. This time we aimed to investigate further if there could be any seasonal differences. Overall, the mussels collected in April had a longer survival time than those collected at the end of January 2024. However, the survival time of wild and farmed mussels had a shorter survival rate in the air than in other studies. The answer to the question “Why is that?” persists.

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New locality of the invasive Monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783) in Greece

2024   ZooNotes 240: 1-4: ZLATOZAR BOEV

Abstract. An adult individual of the Monk parakeet has been recorded in the City of Piraeus (SE Greece), a new unknown so far locality of the species.

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New records of some insects from the Strandzha Mts and adjacent Black Sea coast

2024   ZooNotes Supplement 16: 7-20LIBOR DVOŘÁK, KATEŘINA DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Jiří Hejkal

Abstract. In this contribution, data to 76 species and one subspecies are given: 29 species of Coleoptera (Buprestidae: 2, Carabidae: 9, Cerambycidae: 3, Chrysomelidae: 1, Coccinellidae: 1, Curculionidae: 2, Dytiscidae: 1, Geotrupidae: 1, Lucanidae: 1, Meloidae: 1, Scarabaeidae: 7), one species of Dermaptera (Forficulidae), 35 species of Diptera (Acroceridae: 1, Dryomyzidae: 1, Heleomyzidae: 1, Hippoboscidae: 1, Lauxaniidae: 7, Opomyzidae: 1, Sciomyzidae: 5, Stratiomyidae: 1, Tabanidae: 15 spp. and 1 ssp., Therevidae: 1), four species of Hemiptera (Cicadidae), six species of Hymenoptera (Apidae: 1, Megachilidae: 1, Scoliidae: 3, Vespidae: 1), one species of Mecoptera (Panorpidae), and one species of Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). Four species are reported as new for Bulgaria: Ogcodes guttatus A. Costa, 1854 (Diptera: Acroceridae), Calliopum simillimum (Collin, 1933), Meiosimyza rorida (Fallén, 1820) (all Diptera: Lauxaniidae), and Tetanocera hyalipennis von Roser, 1840 (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Three species are reported with the first precisely located records for Bulgaria: Homoneura limnea (Becker, 1895), Minettia longipennis (Fabricius, 1794) (both Diptera: Lauxaniidae) and Tetanocera arrogans Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Other recorded species interesting from faunistic point of view are Dixus eremita (Dejean, 1825), Ophonus gabrieleae Wrase, 1987 (both Coleoptera: Carabidae), Thereva aurata Loew, 1854 (Diptera: Therevidae), and Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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Free-living freshwater nematodes in Vlasina Lake (Serbia, Pčina District, Surdulica Municipality)

2024   ZooNotes 239: 1-3: STEFAN STOICHEV, ELENA NENOVA

Abstract. For the first time, a short hydrofaunistic research of Vlasina Lake, was carried in Serbia, Pčina District, Surdulica Municipalityut. A total 18 free-living fresh water nematods  species were found. Information on frequency of occurrence and frequency of dominance is given. The study gives first information on the free-living fresh water nematods  of the Vlasina Lake. For the  first time data are reported on free-living fresh water Nematoda from Serbia.

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Review of cestodes (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) recorded from birds in Sakar Mountains

2024   ZooNotes Supplement 15: 7-19: MARGARITA H. MARINOVA

Abstract. A review of cestodes (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) recorded from birds in Sakar Mountains is presented. A total of 31 species were reported as two of them has been identified at the generic level only. They belong to 21 genera and 4 families of the order Cyclophyllidea. As hosts, 39 species of bird from 19 families were reported. A host-parasite list is presented. The cyclophyllidean cestode species from birds recorded in the Sakar Mountains represent 13.6% of the cestode species recorded in Bulgaria.

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Physiological measurements of the Mediterannean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819) from the Bulgarian Black Sea as biomarkers for multi-stressor environment


Abstract. Wild and farmed mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea were collected to study and compare the survival rates (stress on stress response) as a biomarker for multi-stressor environment. In sum, the survival time indicated that the farmed mussels were more tolerant to stress, even though they had a similar size and lived in similar conditions. Further research needs to be done to clarify why.

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A new collection of Psocodea (Insecta) from Unguja Island (Zanzibar, Tanzania)

2024   ZooNotes 237: 1-4: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. The study presents a new collection of Psocodea (Insecta) from Unguja Island (Zanzibar, Tanzania), conducted during March 3rd to 9th, 2024. Despite recent efforts to explore Psocodea fauna in equatorial and tropical Africa, comprehensive studies in East Africa, particularly along the east coast and inland areas, remain limited. This research contributes to filling these gaps by documenting 16 species, including nine new records for the Zanzibar autonomic region and seven new records for Tanzania. Notably, one species (Nanopsocus sp.) may potentially be new to science.

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A case of transportation of Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius, 1803) (Insecta, Hemiptera) in Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes 236: 1-2: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. During the period of 02-09.03.2024, the author and their family stayed in a hotel infested with bed bugs in Uroa village, Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Upon returning to Bulgaria (Hrishteni village, Stara Zagota city area), one specimen of Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius, 1803) was found alive in the luggage.  This should be the first documented record of the tropical bed bug in Bulgaria, and the possibility of transfer via increased touristic visit in tropical destinations were briefly discussed.

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Abundance and biomass of Cladocera (Crustacea) in Vaya Lake

2024   ZooNotes 235: 1-4: ELENA NENOVA, STEFAN STOICHEV

Abstract. The number and biomass of Cladocera in Vaya Lake during the period 2003 - 2007 was studied under the conditions of increased anthropogenic pressure. The total number of cladocerans by station and by species, as well as their biomass, was determined. A dendrogram of similarity in species and quantitative composition of Cladocera was made. St. 1 and St. 5 are distinguished by the equal and lowest abundance of D. magna, and the very similar and highest abundance of M. micrura. Stations 3, 4, 11, and 12 had the highest Cladocera abundances, which were mainly due to close D. longispina and M. micrura. St. 9, 8, 2 and 7 form one group with more than 83% similarity. They show similar abundances of D. pulex. The dendrogram of similarity in species composition and biomass for the cladocerans showed 75% similarity among all stations except st. 5, which clearly stands out with the lowest total biomass.

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Recent record of Leioderes kollari kollari L. Redtenbacher, 1849 (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) in Bulgaria


Abstract. The longhorn beetle species Leioderes kollari kollari L. Redtenbacher, 1849 (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) is reported in Bulgaria after nearly thirty years of lack of data. Beetles were collected with UV light traps in the Shumensko Plato Nature Park with preserved natural forest habitats. The habitat of the species in the studied area is a mixed deciduous forest with Fagus sylvatica L., Carpinus betulus L. and Acer campestre L.

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Current distribution of Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar J.E. Gray, 1830) in Sakar Mts, Southeast Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes Supplement 15: 1-6: GRADIMIR GRUYCHEV

Abstract. The distribution and degree of breeding evidence of Chukar Partridge was identified by field observations in the period 2019-2023 in the area falling within the natural habitats of the species in Sakar Mountain. For the entire study period, a total of 22 different localities of the species with a certain breeding category were established and in 8 of them there was confirmed breeding. The average number of fledglings per successfully bred pair is 8.37±2.2 (6-12 ind.).  Non-pairing and non-breeding birds were also observed in 2021/2022 at sites where breeding success data were collected.

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First record of Vadonia unipunctata makedonica Holzschuh, 1989 (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae) in Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes 233: 1-4: DENIS GRADINAROV, YANA PETROVA

Abstract. Vadonia unipunctata makedonica Holzschuh, 1989 (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae) is reported from the Bulgarian part of Falakro Mts. The nominative subspecies V. unipunctata unipunctata (Fabricius, 1787) is also present in Bulgaria. Photographs of the beetles of both subspecies are provided.

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Seasonal and circadian activity patterns of two sympatric carnivores in an agricultural habitat, Southern Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes 232: 1-4: ALEXANDER PETROV

Abstract. To establish the circadian activity of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in agricultural habitats of Southern Bulgaria a total of 5 camera traps were set in protected area “Maritsa - Parvomay”. Both carnivores demonstrated bimodal nocturnal activity with close or coincident hour intervals. They showed peak activity in the dark and in the twilight, which is usual for areas with strong anthropogenic influence.

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One more “Asian” psocid (Insecta: Psocodea) found in Africa?

2024   ZooNotes 231: 1-4: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. The study presents new findings of Peripsocus cf. constrictus Thornton & Wong, 1968, in Uganda, near Buvi village, along the shores of Lake Victoria. Specimens were collected on July 30th, 2022, from a swampy area with bushes, palms, and various hygrophytes. A total of 12 female specimens were collected by beating the vegetation and stored for further analysis. The species P. constrictus was previously described based solely on a male specimen from Southeast Asia, so its identification based on females from Africa remains uncertain.

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A record of import of the invasive snail Theba pisana (O. F. Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Bulgaria

2024   ZooNotes 230: 1-2: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. This is a short communication of a discovery of the invasive Mediterranean snail species Theba pisana among food products in a market in Bulgaria imported from Spain. A single live juvenile specimen was found among lettuce leaves. Later it was alive kept in a terrarium.

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Nesting observation of the Sculptured Resin bee Megachile sculpturalis F. Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Bulgaria


Abstract. Establishing of the East Asian bee species Megachile sculpturalis F. Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is documented in Bulgaria. Nesting of the species on two old trees of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott was observed in the Sea Garden of Varna City, NE Bulgaria. A single female of the same species was also collected in Banitsa Vill., NW Bulgaria.

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Notes on the diet of Testudo hermanni boettgeri and T. graeca ibera in south-western Bulgaria with first cases of geophagy and myrmecophagy from the country


Abstract. Data on the diet of Testudo hermanni and T. graeca have been published in Bulgaria for more than a century. Yet, few studies have provided more details on the feeding habits of the two species. Here, we present information about their diet in south-western Bulgaria where they coexist. The results showed that T. graeca fed exclusively on plants, whereas T. hermanni was more opportunistic and supplemented its diet with other food sources, including ants and soil particles.

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New records of Agapanthia maculicornis maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) in SE Bulgaria

2023   ZooNotes 227: 1-4: DENIS GRADINAROV, YANA PETROVA

Abstract. Eight new localities of Agapanthia maculicornis maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) in SE Bulgaria are reported. The species is rather common in xerothermic herbaceous communities, being most often found on plants from the tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae: Cichorioideae). Photographs of the species from Bulgaria are published for the first time.

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Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers impairs the health condition of Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771)


Abstract. Тhe present pilot laboratory study (96 hours and 30 days) aimed to provide for the first time the possible adverse effects of different concentrations of PBDEs congers (PBDE 28, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, PBDE 154), based on Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) in Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771). Thus, we calculated different condition factors based on the mussel’s weight and length to determine the possible adverse effects of acute and subchronic exposure to PBDEs under laboratory conditions.

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Earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae) records from the Western Stara Planina Mts (Bulgaria)


Abstract. The current study is a contribution to the knowledge of the earthworm diversity from the Sofia region (Bulgaria). During the investigation 10 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to five genera. Among them Dendrobaena alpina alpina (Rosa, 1884) and Dendrobaena attemsi (Michaelsen, 1902) proved to be the new records from Western Stara Planina Mts. D. alpina alpina is registered for the first time in the whole Balkan Mts., while D. attemsi is found for the first time in the Western parts of Balkan Mts.

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A noteworthy locality of the javelin sand boa (Eryx jaculus Linnaeus, 1758) in Southern Bulgaria


Abstract. A noteworthy locality of the rare javelin sand boa (Eryx jaculus Linnaeus 1758) is described on the slope of the Rhodope Mountain south of Asenovgrad, with at least 28 individual specimens. As this rare species is sensitive to disturbance, conservation actions should be taken to preserve the site.

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New records of Psocoptera (Insecta) from French Guiana (North Amazonia)

2023   ZooNotes 223: 1-4: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. Psocoptera were collected from French Guiana (near Montjoly town and Wayki village) by beating the vegetation between 29.07-05.08.2023. At least 14 species from seven families of Psocoptera were collected. Nine of them were new records for French Guiana (four new records for the New World) and five were already known for this area.

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Animal remains of the Late Antiquity settlement (1-4th c. AD) near Dolni Lukovit (Pleven Region, CN Bulgaria)

2023   ZooNotes 222: 1-2: ZLATOZAR BOEV

Abstract. A total of 29 bones and bone fragments of wild and domestic birds and mammals collected in the Late Antiquity military settlement near Dolni Lukovit village (Pleven Region, CN Bulgaria) have been identified as 9 species of 7 orders. Most numerous are the remains of pigs and chickens. The species composition suggests the existence of open treeless grassy habitats in the vicinity of settlements.

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New record of White-tailed lapwing (Vanellus leucurus Lichtenstein, 1823) on the south Black Sea shore in Bulgaria


Abstract. Two adult individuals of the White-tailed lapwing (Vanellus leucurus) were observed on 26.04.2022 on the sand beach near Veleka River mouth.

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Vantage point surveys of cetaceans (Mammalia, Cetacea) and their interactions with marine birds


Abstract. Between June and September 2021, observations were carried out from a vantage point near Cape Emine. The surveys cover 20 field days and 160 hours. Near Ahtopol between June and November – 18 field days and 146 hours in 2022. All of the three cetacean species, occurring in the Black sea, were observed in Cape Emine: 336 animals in 143 sightings. The highest number of individuals recorded, was in June: 154 animals in 65 sightings. Near Ahtopol in 2022 only Phocaena phocaena (61 individuals and 143 sightings) and Delphinus delphis (38 individuals in 1 sighting) were recorded. Interactions with marine birds were recorded during 93 % of observations on cetacean feeding.

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Data on migration and wintering of the Common Crane (Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758) in Northwestern Bulgaria


Abstract. In the period 2011 - 2022, four cases of nocturnal flight and two cases of daytime observations during autumn migration of Common Crane (Grus grus Linnaeus, 1758) were registered in Northwestern Bulgaria. One case of this species wintering in NW Bulgaria has also been observed. The data available so far are very limited regarding the migration and wintering of the Common Crane in this part of Bulgaria.

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Biomass of the chironomid larvae (Chironomidae, Diptera) in Vaya Lake (Bulgaria) during the period 2003-2007

2023   ZooNotes 218: 1-4: ELENA NENOVA, STEFAN STOICHEV

Abstract. The biomass of chironomids in the Vaya Lake during the period 2003-2007 was studied. In the spring and summer of 2004, the biomass was estimated by the highest values, and in the spring and summer of 2006 – the lowest. The species with the greatest participation in the biomass were: Chironomus riparius, Cryptochironomus defectus, Chironomus gr. plumosus, Cricotopus sylvestris, Tanytarsus gregarious and Cricotopus algarum. The stations along the central axis of the lake had the highest similarity. Dendrogram of chironomid biomass similarity showed high similarity (greater than 80%) for sites 3, 4 and 12.

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New records of Psocoptera (Insecta) from Thailand

2023   ZooNotes 217: 1-3: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. The study was carried out between 24-27.02.2023, East and South-East of Karon village on Phuket Island, Thailand. At least 13 species from seven families of Psocoptera were collected. Eleven species were new records for Thailand.

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Chronic toxicity of microplastics have lethal effects on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1785)


Abstract. The 21st century has seen the realization that people have overused plastic. Unfortunately, plastic pollution is a widespread environmental problem in many of the world’s rivers and seas. Plastic litter is well distributed in shallow as well as in deep-waters, and therefore it is inevitably present in the world’s ocean which is in turn the final sink of plastic debris of all sizes, alongside other various anthropogenic toxicants (for example, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants). The negative effects of microplastics (MPs) which are produced by the breakdown of larger plastic debris on aquatic organisms, including both freshwater and marine fish have been already well documented. However, there is a gap in the knowledge from studies conducted in the field or under laboratory conditions in Bulgaria.

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Faunistic and ecological investigations of the free-living freshwater nematode fauna of the Koprinka Reservoir (Central Bulgaria)

2023   ZooNotes 215: 1-4: STEFAN STOICHEV, ELENA NENOVA

Abstract. The study gives for the new information for hydrofaunistic investigation of the Koprinka  Reservoir. A total of 22 free-living freshwater nematode species were found for the period  2020, 2021. Nematode fauna and environmental factors were tested by statistical analyses. The species Monhystera stagnalis, Monhystera filiformis and Dorylaimus stagnalis were found in all six stations of the reservoir.

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New records of Psocoptera (Insecta) from Uganda

2023   ZooNotes 214: 1-4: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. A new collection of Psocoptera from Uganda revealed 37 species. Thirty six were new records for the country. After this study the current list of barklice of Uganda is comprised of 50 species.

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First data on nesting of the Common Raven (Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758) in cities of Bulgaria


Abstract. In the period 2018-2022, nesting of Common Raven (Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758) pairs was established in the cities of Montana, Varshets and Sofia. In 2021, possible nesting was detected for one Common Raven pair in the city of Vratsa.

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Microplastic pollution – are there potential toxic threats for aquatic animals in Bulgaria?


Abstract. Microplastic (MPs) pollution and its negative effects is a growing, yet poorly studied problem in Bulgaria. In the present review we aimed to summarize the available data on MPs contamination of surface waters and sediments, and its impact on aquatic animals in Bulgaria.

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First record of Attagenus smirnovi (Zhantiev, 1973) in Bulgaria (Insecta: Coleoptera: Dermestidae)


Abstract. The dermestid beetle Attagenus smirnovi (Zhantiev, 1973) is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria.

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Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from caves in Bulgaria

2022    ZooNotes 210: 1-4: APOSTOL APOSTOLOV

Abstract. The paper summarizes the information concerning the distribution of the harpacticoid fauna in Bulgarian caves. So far, in 56 caves situated in four physiсogeographic regions are registered 35 species from 12 genera of the 3 families (Ameiridae, Canthocamptidae and Parastenocarididae). Of all the species found in the caves, 19 are stygobionts, 11 stogophiles and 5 stygoxenes.

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Circadian activity patterns of the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Stone marten (Martes foina) in agricultural landscape of Northwestern Bulgaria during autumn-winter period


Abstract. Our study was aimed to establish the circadian activity of the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Stone marten (Martes foina) in the protected area "Zlatiyata", situated in an agricultural landscape. The study was conducted from September 2021 to March 2022 using camera traps. It provides new data on the behavioral ecology of the target species contributing to the knowledge of their co-existence in croplands.

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Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) - the common known bird? Part III. Common quail hybridization aspects

2022    ZooNotes 208: 1-3: HRISTO LUKANOV, IVELINA PAVLOVA

Abstract. The common quail (Coturnix coturnix Linneaus, 1758) belongs to a genus with a small variety of species, inhabiting a huge area, which has given the opportunity to distinguish several subspecies. An important element for the common quail’s population diversity, which is relatively poorly studied, is the possibility of inter-species hybridization and intraspecies crossbreeding. The main scientific focus is in the direction of relationship between common and Japanese quail. The analysis of possible other possibilities of interaction between the different species of the genus Coturnix and the separate subspecies gives serious grounds for a far broader consideration of the common quail hybridization issue.

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First observation of the White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in CW Bulgaria for the last 132 years

2022    ZooNotes 207: 1-4: ZLATOZAR BOEV, ZLATOZAR BOEV Jr.

Abstract. An observation of an adult bird on the 20th August 2022 along the shore of Bozalan (Bakardere) Reservoir near Verinsko village (CW Bulgaria) is reported. This is the first species’ record in the last 132 years in that part of the country.

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A Case of winter activity of the Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789) (Reptilia: Testudinidae) from Bulgaria


Abstract. The active season of T. hermanni in Bulgaria is from March–April to October–November. So far, few cases of winter activity have been registered in the country. Here we report on another such case of an adult T. hermanni. The temporary emergence of the specimen from its hibernaculum was probably caused by the combined effect of several factors such as the high ambient temperatures, the orientation of the slope, the altitude, the depth of the hibernaculum used, etc.

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Scavenging behavior of an adult Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789) (Reptilia: Testudinidae)


Abstract. It is well known that the Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni) feeds primarily on plants. The species can also supplement its diet with different food sources, including carrion. Yet, few cases of scavenging behavior have been reported in the literature. Here we report on the consumption of a dead female Common Toad (Bufo bufo) by an adult female T. hermanni. The scavenging behavior observed can be related to the increased energy needs of females during the nesting season.

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Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) - the common known bird? Part II. Common quail taxonomy

2022    ZooNotes 204: 1-3: HRISTO LUKANOV, IVELINA PAVLOVA

Abstract. Despite the controversy over Common quail (Coturnix coturnix Linneaus, 1758) subspecies diversity, the following subspecies stand out in the scientific literature: C. c. coturnix (Linneaus, 1758), C. c. africana (Temminck & Schlegel, 1848), C. c. erlangeri (Zedlitz, 1912), C. c. inopinata (Hartert, 1917), and C. c. conturbans (Hartert, 1917). This systematics is based on the area of distribution and insignificant external differences, which is criticized for the migratory behavior of the species and the opportunities for interspecies contact in the common areas.

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Observations of terrestrial vertebrates at South Coastal Kenya: a short note

2022    ZooNotes 203: 1-4: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. In terms of the biodiversity monitoring and conservation, localities of 9 species of reptiles, 26 species of birds, and 9 species of mammals were reported for the coastal area of Kenya (a stripe of about 20 km between the small river of Congo and the harbour to Chale Island).

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Faunistic and ecological investigations of the free-living freshwater nematode fauna of the Ogosta Reservoir (North-West Bulgaria)


Abstract. The study gives for the first time a short hydrofaunistic investigation of the Ogosta Reservoir, recently infested by the invasive species from complex Dreissena bugensis -polymorpha. A total of 22 nematode species belonging to 12 genera and 9 families were found for the period April 2010 and August 2012. Nematode fauna and environmental factors were tested by statistical analyses. The species Monhystera stagnalis, M. filiformis and Dorylaimus stagnalis were found in all five stations of the reservoir. One species, Rhabditis brevispina, is new to the Bulgarian hydrofauna.

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Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) - the common known bird? Part I. Distribution and conservation status

2022    ZooNotes 201: 1-3: HRISTO LUKANOV, IVELINA PAVLOVA

Abstract. Common quail (Coturnix coturnix Linneaus, 1758) inhabits a vast area spread over three continents - Europe, Asia and Africa. Although it is the most thoroughly studied wild representative of the genus Coturnix there are some poorly clarified aspects, mainly concerning its current conservation status, subspecies diversity, and the possibilities for natural hybridization. The purpose of this article is to consolidate, systematize and analyze the available information regarding the state of the global population, taxonomy, and the hybridization of the common quail.

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Mass winter movements of Yelkouan Shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast


Abstract. Large flocks of Yelkouan Shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan Acerbi, 1827) were reported to migrate along the northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast in the winter. On 06.02.2021, a total of 15,488 Yelkouan Shearwaters were counted for one hour after midday at Dobrudzha campsite, Shabla. During February 2021 and 2022, some smaller flocks were also observed. In the past, such big concentrations of Yelkouan Shearwaters in the Black Sea have been reported only during the spring, summer and rarely autumn. The possible explanations for such a winter influx of the species are discussed.

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Common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1785): a species equally important for aquaculture and aquatic toxicology


Abstract. Our main goal in this short review is to present the pros of using common carp (Cyprinus caprio Linnaeus, 1785) for the purposes in both, aquaculture and aquatic toxicology.

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First record of the Asian seed beetle Megabruchidius dorsalis (Fåhraeus, 1839) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Bulgaria

2022    ZooNotes 198: 1-4: DENIS GRADINAROV

Abstract. Asian seed beetle Megabruchidius dorsalis (Fåhraeus, 1839) is reported for the first time from Bulgaria. The beetles were reared from seed pods of Gleditsia triacanthos L., collected in a city park in Sofia.

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Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771): the invasive bioindicator for freshwater quality?


Abstract. In this short review we aim to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) for the purposes of freshwater monitoring.

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New records of scorpion-flies (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) from Bulgaria

2022    ZooNotes 196: 1-4: LIBOR DVOŘÁK

Abstract. The distributional data for three Panorpa species from Bulgaria are presented here. The species Panorpa rufostigma Westwood, 1846 is published the first time from Bulgaria.

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Avian remains from the Palace Center and the Citadel of the medieval capital Pliska of Bulgaria (10th century AD)

2022    ZooNotes 195: 1-4: ZLATOZAR BOEV

Abstract. Seven species and domestic forms of birds have been reported through 155 bone remains from the medieval Bulgarian capital Pliska, collected in 2012 and 2018. It is assumed that the mute swan and the hooded crow were used for food.

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First record of Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say, 1823) (Scolopacidae, Aves) in Bulgaria

2022    ZooNotes 194: 1-3: ZLATOZAR BOEV

Abstract. Two adult individuals of the Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus were observed on 31.12.2021 in the shallow basins in the southern part of the Atanasovsko Lake near Burgas.

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Additions to the list of Psocoptera (Insecta) of Samothraki Island (Greece)

2022    ZooNotes 193: 1-2: DILIAN GEORGIEV

Abstract. A new collection of Psocoptera from Samothraki Island revealed 6 species. Four of them were new records for this area. After this study the current list of barklice of the island is comprised of 13 species.

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Infestation of the road-killed Eastern European hedgehogs (Erinaceus roumanicus) with Ixodidae ticks in some parts of Upper Thracian Plain (Bulgaria)


Abstract. Infestation of the road-killed hedgehogs (Erinaceus roumanicus) with Ixodes ticks in some parts of Upper Thracian Plain (Bulgaria) was investigated. A total of 5 tick species from 3 genera were identified.

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Ingestion of plastics in the European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus, 1758): first known observation in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria


Abstract. In this article we report the first registered case of plastic products in fish purchased from a local fish market in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

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Another contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of few lacertid lizards (Reptilia, Squamata, Lacertidae) from Southern Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 190: 1-4: Ivelin Mollov, Peter Boyadzhiev

Abstract. We present unpublished data on the diet of three lizards (Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta agilis and Podarcis tauricus) from the Lacertidae family, collected in 1974 in few localities in Southern Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta) are the most numerous and the most frequently met food component and among the non-insect components the spiders and isopods are slightly predominating. The largest niche breadth was recorded in Podarcis tauricus (6.135), followed by Lacerta trilineata (5.263) and Lacerta agilis (4.132). All three studied lacertid species are classified as opportunistic general feeders (polyphages), which may show slight preference towards beetles, ants or spiders, depending on the occupied habitat or the season.

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New records for distribution of Phytoliriomyza melampyga (Loew, 1869) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its host plants in Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 189: 1-3: Gergana Zaemdzhikova, Danail Doychev, Plamen Glogov

Abstract. This study provides new data on the distribution of Phytoliriomyza melampyga, as well as information on its host plants in the country.

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Karvav Kamak Mnt. – a new locality of the Spotted Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes (Linnaeus, 1758)) in Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 188: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A new species locality of Nucifraga caryocatactes is reported in the Karvav Kamak Mnt. (part of the Milevska Mnt.) on the Bulgarian-Serbian state border. The site is remote 50-70 km from the nearest known localities in the Western Stara Planina, Vitosha, and Osogovo mountains.

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Additions and corrections to the list of Psocoptera of Unguja Island (Zanzibar, Tanzania)

2021     ZooNotes 187: 1-3: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. Three species were added to the list of Psocoptera of Unguja, and one was excluded. A revision of the materials mentioned by Georgiev (2021) revealed two species as new records to the island, and one which was previously misidentified was now corrected. These were Liposcelis puber, L. plesiopuber and Stenocaecilius casarum. All were new records for Tanzania.

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First record of Thereva aurata (Loew, 1854) in Bulgaria (Insecta: Diptera: Therevidae)

2021     ZooNotes 186: 1-3: Tsvetomir Tsvetanov

Abstract. The therevid fly Thereva aurata (Loew, 1854) is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria.

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Three new records of feather mite species (Acari: Astigmata) for Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 185: 1-4: Nevena Kolarova, Mihaela Ilieva

Abstract. Five feather mite species were collected from the bird species Columba palumbus L., 1758 (Columbiformes), Emberiza calandra L., 1758, Hippolais icterina (Vieillot, 1817) and Acrocephalus melanopogon (Temminck, 1823) (Passeriformes). Analges nitzschi Haller, 1878, Ingrassiella melanopogoni Constantinescu, 2013 and Proctophyllodes icterina Zullo & Manilla, 1992 (Analgoidea) are new feather mite species for the acarofauna of Bulgaria.

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Animal remains of the medieval settlement near Petarch village (Sofia Province, CW Bulgaria)

2021     ZooNotes 184: 1-4: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A total of 107 bones and bone fragments of wild and domestic reptiles, birds and mammals collected in the medieval settlement near Petarch village (Sofia Region, CW Bulgaria) have been identified as 11 taxa. Most numerous are the remains of cattle, aurochs and the wild boar, indicating forest landscape. The record of the wisent is a rare confirmation of the species existence at least till 7th-9th century AD in the country.

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New records of Pilemia tigrina (Mulsant, 1851) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) from roadside habitats in Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 183: 1-4: Denis Gradinarov, Yana Petrova

Abstract. New data on the distribution of Pilemia tigrina (Mulsant, 1851) in Bulgaria are presented. The species is reportred for the first time from Mala Planina Mts. and from several sites along Iskarski Prolom Gorge. It seems that the species is not rare in roadside habitats of the Western Stara Planina Mts., and its distribution is determined by the presence of the host plant Anchusa barrelieri (All.) Vitman.

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Confirmation of the presence of Dorcadion (Cribridorcadion) decipiens (Germar, 1824) in Bulgaria (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

2021     ZooNotes 182: 1-4: Mikhail Danilevsky, Betina Boyanova, Tsvetomir Tsvetanov

Abstract. The presence of Dorcadion decipiens (Germar, 1824) in Bulgaria is confirmed after 116 years from the first record (Nedelkov 1905), which was not accepted by scientific community as real.

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Species composition of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Vaya Lake

2021     ZooNotes 181: 1-4: Elena Nenova, Stefan Stoichev

Abstract. The species composition of one of the main zoobenthos groups in Vaya Lake - Chironomidae (Diptera) in the period 2003 - 2007 was studied. A total of 27 taxa were identified, of which 18 species from 11 genera were identified and 9 taxa at the level of sp. The results showed a change in the species composition of chironomids compared to the period 1953 - 1957 (Zashev and Angelov, 1959) when the only systematic studies of the lake so far were performed.

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New data for feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) from birds in South Dobrudzha, Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 180: 1-3: Nevena Kolarova

Abstract. The feather mite species on Certhia familiaris L., 1758, Crex crex (L., 1758), Jynx torquila (L., 1758) and Turdus pilaris L., 1758 are studied for the first time in South Dobrudzha Region (Bulgaria). As a result, four feather mite species are reported and two of these species - Analges certhiae Haller, 1878 and Grallobia rallorum (Robin, 1877) are new for the Bulgarian fauna.

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Feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea) from the Moustached Warbler, Acrocephalus melanopogon (Passeriformes: Acrocephalidae) in Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 179: 1-4: Nevena Kolarova

Abstract. For the first time in Bulgaria Moustached Warbler, Acrocephalus melanopogon (Temminck, 1823) is studied as a host of feather mites. As a result, three feather mite species - Trouessartia bifurcata (Trouessart, 1884), Trouessartia mironovi Constantinescu, 2013 and Proctophyllodes sp. were identified. One of these species - T. mironovi is reported as a new for the Bulgarian fauna.

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A new member of the genus Graecophalangium Roewer, 1923 and the first generic record for the Turkish harvestman fauna (Arachnida: Opiliones)

2021     ZooNotes 178: 1-4: Plamen Mitov

Abstract. Egaenus marenzelleri Nosek, 1905 is redescribed and transferred to the genus Graecophalangium Roewer, 1923 as Graecophalangium marenzelleri, comb. n. This species is also the first representative of its genus for the Turkish fauna. Male external and genital morphology of this species is illustrated for the first time.

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A short note on vertebrates observed at Michamwi Peninsula, Unguja Island (Tanzania)

2021     ZooNotes 177: 1-4: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. This case study presents new distribution data on 37 vertebrate species (1 fish, 4 lizards, 1 snake, 3 mammals, and 28 birds). All were registered at the area of North-West coast of Michamwi Peninsula.

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Some Psocoptera species (Hexapoda, Insecta) new to the fauna of Belarus

2021     ZooNotes 176: 1-3: Artsiom Ostrovsky, Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. The first records of three Psocoptera species (barkflies) from the genera Lepinotus and Liposcelis from Belarus are provided. They were found in bird's, wasp's, ant's and marten's nests.

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New and unpublished data about the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 175: 1-4: Teodora Teofilova

Abstract. Bulgarian carabid fauna is relatively well studied but there are still many species and regions in the country lacking enough research. This study gives new information about 28 carabid species and 15 zoogeographical regions and subregions in Bulgaria. There are 10 species recorded for the first time in different regions. Three species are reported for the second time in the regions where they were currently collected. Eleven species haven’t been reported since 1995 from the Predbalkan Region, Ihtimanska Sredna Gora Mts., Sandanski-Petrich Valley, Vitosha Mts., Rila Mts., Pirin Mts., and Kraishte Region.

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New and unpublished data about Bulgarian ground beetles of the tribe Lebiini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

2021     ZooNotes 174: 1-4: Teodora Teofilova

Abstract. This study gives new information and new records on 24 carabid species and 18 zoogeographical regions and subregions in Bulgaria. This is the second country record of Dromius angustus. There are another 13 species recorded for the first time in different regions. One species is reported for the second time in the region where it was currently collected. Eight species haven’t been reported for more than 25 years in the Boboshevo-Simitli valley, Sandanski-Petrich valley, Vitosha Mts., Rila Mts., and Pirin Mts.

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Toxic pesticides effects on the respiration rate in Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771)

2021     ZooNotes 173: 1-4: Vesela Yancheva, Ivelin Mollov, Stela Stoyanova, Borislava Todorova, Iliana Velcheva, Elenka Georgieva

Abstract. With the present experiment we aimed to study the possible negative effects of two commonly used insecticides – cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the respiration rate of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) after 96 hours and 30 days. We found that both chemicals altered the respiration process; however CYP was determined to be more toxic regarding this particular biological measurement.

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On the presence of bats (Chiroptera) at the mouths of Kamchiya and Shkorpilovska Rivers, Bulgarian Black Sea Coast

2021     ZooNotes 172: 1-4: Heliana Dundarova, Ivan Pandourski

Abstract. Eight bat species was identified using acoustic survey in the territories of Kamchiya and Shkorpilovska Rivers. The majority of records belong to Myotis cf. daubentonii, Pipistrellus nathusii and Nyctalus noctula. Plecotus austriacus was found only at the mouths of Kamchiya river. Both sites have high conservation priority as the Black Sea wetlands.

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Some Psocoptera records from South-West Bulgaria

2021     ZooNotes 171: 1-4: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. A total of 9 species were reported from three geographic areas of South-West Bulgaria (Kresna Gorge, Kozhuh Mt., and Ograzhden Mts.): Liposcelis bostrychophila, L. decolor, L. silvarum, Lachesilla pedicularia, L. bernardi, E. annulatus, E. moebiusi, Amphigerontia contaminata, and Neopsocus rhenanus.

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Animal remains of the medieval settlement (9th-10th century A. D.) near Nedan village (Veliko Tarnovo Region, CN Bulgaria)

2021     ZooNotes 170: 1-4: Zlatozar Boev, Georgi Popgeorgiev

Abstract. A total 1142 animal remains of 18 taxa (incl. man) have been established in the medieval settlement (9th - 10th century A. D.) near Nedan village (Veliko Tarnovo Region, CN Bulgaria). Some wild mammals as Grey wolf, Red deer, Roe deer were rarely hunted, while livestock breeding (cattle, sheep, goat, horse and pig) was the basic source of meat for the settlement’s inhabitants. In addition numerous remains of the Caspian whipsnake and Grass/Dice snake have been found.

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Golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758) and Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) population dynamics in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., Bulgaria based on hunting statistics

2020     ZooNotes 169: 1-3: Evgeniy Raichev

Abstract. Golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758) and Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) are the most common medium-sized canid species in Bulgaria. Annual harvest hunting data base for 2009-2019 was used as a method for assessing changes in their population trends. The study area covers approximately 100,000 ha comprising the areas of State Forestry Stara Zagora, State Forestry Kazanlak, State Forestry Maglizh and State Forestry Chirpan (Bulgaria). The hunting bag data for jackals and foxes varied considerably during the study period, ranging from 340 to 899 specimens for the jackals, and from 143 to 299 for the foxes, respectively. It can be concluded that the dynamics in the number of the Golden jackal and the Red fox in the region of Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts. and its adjacent territories was of different intensity over the years and proceeded independently.

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 Impacts of resource limitations on the reproduction behaviour in the Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina) on the territory of Natura park “Shumensko plato”

2020     ZooNotes 168: 1-4: Teodora Koynova, Dimitar Doichev, Nikolay Natchev

Abstract. The Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina) is one of the anurans species inhabiting the Nature Park “Shumensko Plato” (north-eastern Bulgaria). In 2019 and 2020 we studied the general ecology of the population in the Park and in particular the breeding activity of the frogs. During our survey we registered extension of the breeding season and we also report on the longest amplexus for R. dalmatina - 12 days (detected in an artificial water basin).

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Impatiens glandulifera, a new host of the tortrix Pristerognatha fuligana in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 167: 1-4: Gergana Zaemdzhikova, Mira Georgieva, Plamen Glogov, Danail Doychev

Abstract. In October 2020, larvae of Pristerognatha fuligana ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were found in stems of the invasive alien species Impatiens glandulifera Royale in Sofia region on the slopes of Plana and Lozenska Mt. The trophic connection of this tortrix moth with I. glandulifera is new for Bulgaria.

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A new predator on pine processionary moth larvae in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 166: 1-4: Gergana Zaemdzhikova, Danail Doychev

Abstract. Oecanthus pellucens (Scopoli, 1763) (Gryllidae) is recorded for the first time as a predator on the larvae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (PPM) in Bulgaria. The Italian tree crickets were observed in black pine plantations (Pinus nigra Arn.), in the region of Fotinovo vill. (Eastern Rhodope Mts.), occupied by the PPM summer population.

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New records of non marine molluscs from Thassos Island (North Aegean, Greece)

2020     ZooNotes 165: 1-3: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. Five mollusc species were recorded on Thassos Island as new for the fauna of the island: Four gastropods (Aegopinella minor, Carychium minimum, Deroceras thersites, Limax graecus), and one clam (Pisidium personatum). Now the number of species recorded on the island is 83. This is one of the richest island malacofaunas of Greece.

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Studen Kladenets Reservoir (CS Bulgaria), a stopover of the migratory Great White Pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus Linnaeus, 1758) through the Balkan Peninsula

2020     ZooNotes 164: 1-4: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. An observation of a flock of 30 birds on 26 August 2020 on the coast of the Studen Kladenets Reservoir is discussed in the light of the species migration and conservation.

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A contribution to the knowledge of the malacofauna of the Bulgarian part of the Falakro Mts

2020     ZooNotes 163: 1-2: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. A total of 44 mollusc species was recorded during a one day study of the area. The main part of the material came from river deposits of the Matnitsa River near the village of Petrelik.

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First record of Reesa vespulae (Milliron, 1939) in Bulgaria (Insecta: Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

2020     ZooNotes 162: 1-3: Tsvetomir Tsvetanov, Jiří Háva

Abstract. The dermestid beetle Reesa vespulae (Milliron, 1939) is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria.

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First records of Xylotrechus pantherinus (Savenius, 1825) and X. stebbingi Gahan, 1906 (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 161: 1-4: Denis Gradinarov, Ognyan Sivilov

Abstract. Two species of the genus Xylotrechus Chevrolat, 1860 are reported for the first time in Bulgaria. A single male of the rare species X. pantherinus (Savenius, 1825) was found among entomological materials collected in Sofia. A female specimen of X. stebbingi Gahan, 1906 alien in Europe was collected by light trapping in the vicinity of Lilyanovo Vill., SW Bulgaria..

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Mesophleps oxycedrella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in association with Juniperus excelsa (Cupressaceae) in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 160: 1-4: Stoyka Ruseva, Boyan Zlatkov, Gergana Zaemdzhikova

Abstract. Mesophleps oxycedrella (Millière, 1871) is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria, feeding on female cones of Juniperus excelsa M.-Bieb. Photographs of the moth and female genitalia are provided.

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First record of Galeruca (Haptoscelis) melanocephala (Ponza, 1805) in Bulgaria (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

2020     ZooNotes 159: 1-3: Tsvetomir Tsvetanov, Ron Beenen

Abstract. The leaf beetle Galeruca melanocephala (Ponza, 1805) is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria. A description of the distribution and photos of adult specimens are presented.

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New high altitude nesting site of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 158: 1-4: Gradimir Gruychev, Stoyan Stoyanov

Abstract. We observed a new White storks’ breeding site in 2014-2019 in Yundola village at 1390 m a.s.l. The first successful nesting was in 2016. The breeding pair had produced two hatchlings per year for three successive years until 2018. The nest site is new for Bulgaria.

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New Psocoptera (Hexapoda, Insecta) records from Belarus

2020     ZooNotes 157: 1-3: Artsiom Ostrovsky, Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. Six Psocoptera species (barkflies) from the genera Lepinotus, Psyllipsocus and Liposcelis were collected from Belarus. All of them are new country records. They were found in domestic situations and three of them also in ant nests.

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New Distributional Records and Another Case of Winter Activity of Malpolon insignitus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) (Reptilia: Psammophiidae) in south-western Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 156: 1-4: Alexander Pulev, Lidia Sakelarieva, Borislav Naumov

Abstract. Six new localities of Malpolon insignitus have been recorded lately in south-western Bulgaria, which supplement its known distribution. One of the observations is the second case of winter activity of the species in the country.

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New record of the steppe longhorn beetle species Phytoecia (Musaria) argus (G. F. Frölich, 1793) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) in Bulgaria

2020     ZooNotes 155: 1-4: Denis Gradinarov, Ilia Gjonov

Abstract. New data on the distribution of Phytoecia argus (G. F. Frölich, 1793) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) in Bulgaria are presented. Six specimens were collected by net sweeping and by hand collection around the host plant Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. in steppe grasslands in Chepan Mts. The species is probably more widespread in suitable habitats in Western Bulgaria.

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First study of fungus gnats (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaroidea) in Tisata Reserve (SW Bulgaria)

2020     ZooNotes 154: 1-4: Aneliya Pavlova

Abstract. As a result of the study in “Tisata” Reserve - 2 families, included 18 genera, from which 19 species of fungus gnats were identified. Coelosia fusca is a newly recorded species for the fauna of Bulgaria.

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Zooplankton species composition of Cladocera and Cyclopoida (Copepoda) in the Vaya Lake

2020     ZooNotes 153: 1-4: Elena Nenova

Abstract. Nine species of Cladocera and three species of Cyclopoida were identified in the Vaya Lake during the period 2003-2007. The results show a complete change in the species composition of cyclopoids compared to the period 1953-1957, when the only systematic study of the zooplankton of the Vaya Lake was conducted. From Cladocera, only two species are common for both periods.

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Dyschiriodes (Eudyschirius) gracilis (O. Heer, 1837) – new record for the Bulgarian ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Scaritinae)

2019     ZooNotes 152: 1-4: Teodora Teofilova, Nikolay Kodzhabashev

Abstract. This is the first record of Dyschiriodes (Eudyschirius) gracilis gracilis (O. Heer, 1837) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Scaritinae) from Bulgaria. It was collected in the Srebarna Reserve in NE Bulgaria via light attraction. Considering its current distributional range, we may suggest that D. gracilis gracilis is to be found in Croatia and Romania too.

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New records of Trox Fabricius, 1775 species (Scarabaeoidea: Trogidae) from Bulgaria

2019     ZooNotes 151: 1-4: Yana Petrova, Denis Gradinarov, Ognyan Sivilov

Abstract. New data on the distribution of four species of genus Trox Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeoidea: Trogidae): Trox niger P. Rossi, 1792, T. perrisii Fairmaire, 1868, T. sabulosus sabulosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. scaber (Linnaeus, 1767) are reported from Bulgaria.

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The effect of pingers on cetaceans bycatch and target catch in the turbot gillnets in Bulgarian Black Sea

2019     ZooNotes 150: 1-4: Zornitsa Zaharieva, Nelko Yordanov, Venislava Racheva, Ventseslav Delov

Abstract. The present study is the first experiment to determine whether acoustic deterrent devices (pingers) reduce cetaceans’ bycatch in the turbot gillnets and catch rates of the target fish in the Bulgarian Black Sea territorial waters. During the study period 2017–2019, 12.4 km of turbot gillnets were included in the experiment. They were equipped with 10 kHz Porpoise Pingers “Future Oceans”. Observations were carried out on regular bases on active (with pingers) and on control nets (without pingers). The results showed that the pingers used were very effective in reducing cetaceans bycatch in turbot gillnets without affecting the target catch.

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Earthworms (Annelida: Lumbricidae) biodiversity affected by pyrogenic carbon emissions at the “Maritsa-Iztok” basin (Bulgaria)

2019     ZooNotes 149: 1-3: Hristo Valchovski, Venera Tsolova, Viktor Kolchakov, Plamen Tomov

Abstract. The paper provides the first exploration of earthworm populations from region of thermal power plant Maritsa East 2 (Bulgaria). During the investigation was observed low biodiversity, count and biomass of lumbricid earthworms in reclaimed soils from coal mining. Five earthworm species were registered from the studied area: Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826), Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826), Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828), Aporrectodea jassyensis (Michaelsen, 1891) and Cernosvitovia rebeli (Rosa, 1897). First record of endemic species Cernosvitovia rebeli (Rosa, 1897) from Thracian Lowland.

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 Animal remains of the medieval settlement near Brankovtsi village (Vidin Region, NW Bulgaria)

2019     ZooNotes 148: 1-4: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A total of 9 taxa of 6 domestic forms and 3 wild species of animals have been identified, among them wild boar, red deer and roe deer. All finds are dated Middle Ages (10th – 13th century A. D.).

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 First Psocoptera records from Northwest Bulgaria: a case study 

2019     ZooNotes 147: 1-2: Dilian Georgiev, Veselina Ivanova

Abstract. The study was carried out on the following dates - 15.6.2019 and 17.6.2019 in NW Bulgaria (Danube River Valley) from three localities: villages of Vrav and Simeonovo, and town of Kozloduy. Five widely distributed species of Psocoptera were registered: Valenzuela flavidus (Stephens, 1836), Graphopsocus cruciatus (Linnaeus, 1768), Lachesilla pedicularia (Linnaeus, 1758), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, 1899 and Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga, 1904.

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 Scythris sinensis (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875), a new species for Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Scythrididae)

2019     ZooNotes 146: 1-2: Tsvetomir Tsvetanov, Boyan Zlatkov

Abstract. Scythris sinensis (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875) is reported for the first time from Bulgaria. The species has never been recorded from the Balkan Peninsula and the present locality is one of the few southern points in its range in Europe..

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 Late Antiquity animal remains of the military settlement near Barkach village (Pleven Region, CN Bulgaria)

2019     ZooNotes 145: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A total of 86 bones and bone fragments of wild and domestic mammals collected in the Late Antiquity military settlement near Barkach village (Pleven Region, CN Bulgaria) have been identified as 9 species of 4 orders. Most numerous are the remains of Donkey and the Red deer. The record of the Fallow deer proves the species occurrence in the Late Antiquity in the North Bulgaria.

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A White Stork (Ciconia ciconia (Linnaeus, 1758)) nest – an unique case of multiple nesting commensalism of five species from Dragoman (W Bulgaria)

2019     ZooNotes 144: 1-4: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A rare case of contemporaneous nesting of five species of birds in a single nest is described.

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A few notes on the diet and the copulation of Theba pisana (Müller, 1774) snails: observations on terrarium kept animals

2019     ZooNotes 143: 1-3: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. The specimens used to eat 17 grass species from all 44 species offered (38.6% from all). They refused to eat all 3 liana and 21 tree species and eat only leafs of Paliurus spina-christi from the offered bushes. Contrary they eat most of the fruits, vegetables and animal food. Hanging on the tips of the soles from the top of terrarium was observed during copulation.

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Preliminary data on the defensive behavior and vocalization of the Lesser blind mole rat, Nannospalax leucodon (Nordmann, 1840)

2019     ZooNotes 142: 1-4: Sirma Zidarova, Ivan Pandourski

Abstract. The defensive behavior of two individuals of the Lesser blind mole rat, Nannospalax (superspecies) leucodon (Nordmann, 1840), was investigated. A characteristic defensive posture and two types of vocalization were recorded: teeth grinding and grunting, expressed by consecutive series of complex harsh calls, consisting of sequences of single very short (1.7 – 2.6 ms) phases (with maximum energy at about 9.8 KHz), accompanied by strong noise component. More research is needed to reveal the full vocal repertoire and behavioral characteristics of the species.

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The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky, 1838) – a subrecent invasive species of the avifauna of Bulgaria (subfossil records)

2019     ZooNotes 141: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. Although the Collared Dove appeared in Bulgaria at 17-18th century, the subfossil record of the species in the country is rather scant. Only five Late Holocene sites contain bone remains (88 bones of 9 individuals), but all of them remained imprecisely dated. Some of the sites could be of older (possibly: Early Medieval Ages) age. All sites are situated in the NE Bulgaria and represent former feeding places of Eagle owls (Bubo bubo).

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New records of Pygopleurus Motschulsky, 1860 species (Scarabaeoidea: Glaphyridae) from Bulgaria

2019     ZooNotes 140: 1-3: Yana Petrova, Denis Gradinarov, Maurizio Bollino

Abstract. New chorological data of three Pygopleurus Motschulsky, 1860 (Scarabaeoidea: Glaphyridae) (i.e. P. apicalis (Brullé, 1832), P. diffusus (Petrovitz, 1958) and P. humeralis (Brullé, 1832)) are reported for Bulgaria. The records of P. apicalis (Brullé, 1832) and P. diffusus (Petrovitz, 1958) are new for the country.

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Lipid accumulation in Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1785) liver induced by thiamethoxam

2019     ZooNotes 139: 1-4: Stela Stoyanova, Elenka Georgieva, Iliana Velcheva, Pepa Atanasova, Vesela Yancheva

Abstract. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of a thiamethoxam based insecticide on the expression of lipid droplets in Common Carp, Cyprinus Carpio (Linnaeus, 1785) liver. The selected concentrations of the test pesticide were 6.6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L under laboratory conditions for an acute period of 96 h. The Sudan III staining method was applied for detection of fatty degeneration in the fish hepatocytes. Overall, we found that the fat storage in the liver cells increased proportionally with the increased pesticide concentrations. The results demonstrated fat accumulation in the fish liver which in addition, could be used as an easy to perform and relatively inexpensive biological tool for studying the effects of pesticide contamination on fish.

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Research on nesting birds on the territory of Kaliakra Wind Farm

2019     ZooNotes 138: 1-4: Nikolay Karaivanov, Petar Karaivanov

Abstract. The study presents data about the status of the nesting ornithofauna in the region of Kaliakra wind farm (Kaliakra Cape, northeast Bulgaria). The data shows the number and the density of the birds observed in this region in 2005, before the construction of the wind farm, and in 2009 after it’s commissioning. Transect method was applied to establish the species composition, numbers and density of the nesting birds. A total amount of 24 nesting species was established. In 2005 the recorded nesting bird species were 17, and in 2009 - 20. Although the number of nesting species in 2009 is slightly higher as compared to 2005, they were established in lower numbers and density. In May the density was lower compared to this in April. The data collected in May show about the same density for the two compared years.

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Histochemical alterations in liver of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1785) after glyphosate exposure: Preliminary study

2019     ZooNotes 137: 1-4: Vesela Yancheva, Iliana Velcheva, Elenka Georgieva, Pepa Atanasova, Stela Stoyanova

Abstract. The present study was designed to provide some preliminary data on the toxic effects of 96 h exposure to glyphosate on the liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under ex situ conditions. For this purpose we used Sudan III staining which could be suggested as fast and low-cost histochemical biomarker for pesticide contamination effects.

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Heavy metals in bones from Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the Western Black Sea Coast

2019     ZooNotes 136: 1-4: Violeta Evtimova, Dimitar Parvanov, Atanas Grozdanov, Feriha Tserkova, Boyan Zlatkov, Vladislav Vergilov, Ognyan Sivilov, Stoyan Yordanov, Ventseslav Delov

Abstract. During the last few years, the Western Black Sea coast has documented increase in the number of stranded marine mammals, particularly the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). This species is a subject to threats such as exposure to contaminants, fishery by-catch and introduced new marine species. The aim of this study was to analyse spatial and age trends in bone metal concentration in harbour porpoises from the Western Black Sea Coast. Selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni) were measured in bones of 33 harbour porpoises stranded along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast from 2017. Spatially, we found higher metal levels in the harbour porpoises stranded in the Northern region compared with those from Southern region. The effect of aging was evident only for Zn content – the levels were higher in juveniles than in adults. The obtained results suggested that heavy metal contamination represent an important threat encountered by harbour porpoises.

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On the occurrence and density of some tardigrade taxa in the city area of Plovdiv, Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 135: 1-4: Maria Yankova

Abstract. There is insufficient data on tardigrades’ distribution, diversity and density. Moss and lichen samples were collected from four different substrates – ground, walls, rocks and trees. Specimens from genus Echiniscus Schultze, 1840, genus Hypsibius Ehrenberg, 1848, genus Milnesium Doyère, 1840, genus Paramacrobitous Guidetti, Schill, Bertolani, Dandekar & Wolf, 2009, genus Ramazzottius Binda & Pilato, 1986 and family Macrobiotidae Thulin, 1928 were found.

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Cetacean mortality along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast during 2017

2018     ZooNotes 134: 1-4: Violeta Evtimova, Dimitar Parvanov, Atanas Grozdanov, Krastio Dimitrov, Feriha Tserkova, Stoyan Yordanov, Yana Velina, Elica Petrova, Yana Yordanova, Ventseslav Delov

Abstract. The present study provides information on the stranding of cetaceans along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast during 2017. Observations were made trough covering transects along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. A total of 198 cetaceans of three species were found - Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), and Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis). The most numerous were the harbor porpoise - 48% followed by the bottlenose dolphin - 15% and common dolphin - 8%. The most significant number of strandings was observed during July and August (54% of all cases). Cetacean strandings events were relatively highly concentrated in the area of Shabla, Varna and Pomorie.

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The benthic harpacticoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) of Budakskyi (Shabolatskyi) Lagoon, North-West coast of the Black Sea, Ukraine.

2018     ZooNotes 133: 1-4: Apostol Apostolov

Abstract. The present study gives new data on a poorly studied group of brackish harpacticoids from the North-West coast of the Black Sea, Ukraine. Seven harpacticoids species (Crustacea, Copepoda) collected in July 1988 from the Budakskyi (Shabolatskyi) Lagoon are reported.

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First record of Argyresthia trifasciata Staudinger, 1871 in Bulgaria (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Argyresthiidae)

2018     ZooNotes 132: 1-4: Stoyka Ruseva, Boyan Zlatkov

Abstract. Argyresthia (Blastotere) trifasciata Staudinger, 1871, a shoot mining moth known as pest on some Cupressaceae representatives, is recorded for the first time in Bulgaria. Photographs of the moth, its genitalia and the damage caused on the host plant are provid.

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First record of the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi Arntzen & Wielstra, 2013) on the territory of the Nature Park “Shumensko plato”

2018     ZooNotes 131: 1-4: Teodora Koynova, Miroslav Slavchev, Nikolay Natchev

Abstract. In a four-year monitoring period, numerous permanent and temporary water basins on the territory of the Habitat Protected Site BG0000382 and the Nature Park “Shumensko Plato” (NE Bulgaria) were identified as possible habitats for amphibians. We inspected the water bodies for presence of Urodelas, included in the inventory documentation of the protected territories. Despite intense field surveys and use of traps, we were able only recently to identify one specimen of the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt. This is the first official record of the species for the protected site.

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Four species of Psocoptera as new records for Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 130: 1-2: Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. The species: Elipsocus abdominalis, E. annulatus, Lachesilla bernardi and Kolbia quisquiliarum were newly recorded for Bulgaria. All were found in the area of Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts. After this paper a total of 58 species of Psocoptera are known to occur in the country.

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First registration of European crested tit Lophophanes cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Ponor Mountain, West Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 129: 1-2: Georgi Stoyanov, Krasimir Donchev

Abstract. The European crested tit Lophophanes cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) is reported for first time in the Ponor Mountain, West Bulgaria, during the breeding season. The habitat, where one pair was observed, is a large, old pine plantation. Most probably, the forestation with coniferous species in the past is the reason for the occurrence of the Crested tit at a low altitude – 718 m.

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Araeopteron ecphaea, a new addition to the Bulgarian fauna (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

2018     ZooNotes 128: 1-4: Boyan Zlatkov, Jari Junnilainen, Ole Karsholt

Abstract. A small macrolepidopteran, Araeopteron ecphaea (Hampson, 1914), is reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Photographs of the moth and its genitalia are provided. The vesica is illustrated and described for the first time.

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New data and notes on the distribution of Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 127: 1-3:  Apostol Apostolov

Abstract. The present study reports a new locality of Nitokra spinipes spinipes Boeck, 1865. During 1988-1989 a large number of Nitokra spinipes spinipes were found in the biofilter at the aquaculture station in Pomorie Town, on the Pomorie Lake coast. This is the first record of the Nitokra spinipes spinipes found trapped in the technical equipment for water purification used in aquaculture.

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First record of Vadonia saucia (Mulsant & Godart, 1855) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 126: 1-3:  Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Single male and single female specimens of Vadonia saucia (Mulsant & Godart, 1855), collected from Yambol (SE Bulgaria), were identified in examination of material from collection of the National Museum of Natural History in Sofia. The species is reported for the first time for the country.

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Characteristics of the hunting behavior of the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) in South-Eastern Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 125: 1-4:  Girgina Daskalova, Peter Shurulinkov

Abstract. Hunting behavior was studied in a small breeding population of Red-footed Falcons in SE-Bulgaria and in a transitory migrants of the same species. A total of seven types of hunting strategies were performed by the Red-footed Falcons which can be rapidly switched from one to another in relation to the available type of prey, the speed and direction of the wind. It was recorded that the hovering series were longer in calm weather (wind speed < 2 m/s) and in strong winds (over 5 m/s) than in moderate winds (2 – 5 m/s). Difference was found in the mean length of the hovering series between the migrating and local breeding Red-footed Falcons. The hunting success of the finished attacks of the Red-footed Falcons was in overall 59.6 %.

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Species composition of the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Natura 2000 Site „Oranovski Prolom - Leshko”, Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 124: 1-4:  Nevena Malakova, Lidia Sakelarieva, Alexander Pulev

Abstract. The Natura 2000 site „Oranovski Prolom - Leshko” (BG0001022) was studied in Jul 2013-Dec 2017 in order to supplement and summarize the information about the diversity and distribution of the herpetofauna. Two new species of amphibians (Caudata) and 8 new species of reptiles (4 Sauria and 4 Serpentes) have been registered. Thus the total number of the representatives of herpetofauna is 29 (10 amphibians and 19 reptiles).

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New earthworm (Megadrili: Lumbricidae) records from Bulgaria with the first finding of Dendrobaena platyura (Fitzinger, 1833) in the country

2018     ZooNotes 123: 1-4:  Hristo Valchanovski, Kalina Koceva, Nikolay Kodjabashev, Timea Szederjesi

Abstract. Results of recent earthworm collectings in Bulgaria are presented. During the investigations altogether 18 species have been registered. Dendrobaena platyura (Fitzinger, 1833) is a new record for the country, and with D. hrabei (Černosvitov, 1934) and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884) also for the region of Stara Planina (Balkan) Mts. D. hrabei, D. depressa (Rosa, 1893), D. octaedra (Savigny, 1826) and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) represent new records for Pirin Mts.

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Clarifications and new data on the distribution of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 in Bulgaria (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

2018     ZooNotes 122: 1-4:  Zdravko Kolev, Tsvetomir Tsvetanov

Abstract. We report a new locality of the invasive butterfly Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 from Vinarovo village in NW Bulgaria, by far the northernmost observation in Bulgaria and also the most inland observation in the Balkan Peninsula and one of the northernmost records in Souheast Europe.

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On the Arthropods in the Stone Marten’s (Martes foina) diet in Central Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 121: 1-3:  Stanislava Peeva, Atanas Mikov, Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. Fourteen newly found Arthropods taxa in the Stone Marten's diet in Central Bulgaria were reported. Five of them were defined to species level. The study was carried out on the base of collected fecal samples.

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A report of Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in the middle sector of Iskar River, Bulgaria

2018     ZooNotes 120: 1-4:  Lyubomir Kenderov

Abstract. Single specimens of invasive mussel species Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) were found in the middle part of the Iskar River, Bulgaria during 2016 and 2017. A cascade of 14 small HPPs was built in this river sector and a shift in the flowing river conditions with stagnant ones in SHPP dam lakes was induced. Future mass invasion of the species is possible. It is important to provide regular monitoring of occurrence of the Zebra Mussel because of the possible negative economic impact during the invasion.

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Frugivory of the Stone Marten (Martes foina Erxl.) in Bulgaria – a review from an urban perspective

2018     ZooNotes 119: 1-4:  Masumi Hisano

Abstract. The present study reviewed frugivory characteristics of the Stone Marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) in Bulgaria with special reference to cultivated plants. A total of six studies were compiled, which showed that nine species fruits (eight species of them were cultivated) and 17 genus/family-level-identified fruits (six genera of them were cultivated) were consumed by the marten.

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First records of the American wasps Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770) and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) from Bulgaria

2017     ZooNotes 118: 1-4:  Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Two alien sphecid species are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Nearctic species Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770) and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867) were found in Sofia. The first species is collected as well from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, near Varna.

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On the sex and age structure of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) population from Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts. (Central Bulgaria)

2017     ZooNotes 117: 1-3:  Stanislava Peeva

Abstract. The sex and age structure of the Stone Marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) population from Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts. (Central Bulgaria) was studied. A total of 67 skulls were divided into three age groups using different methods. The population structure showed a male-biased sex ratio with adults predominating over yearlings.

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Notes on the defensive behavior and activity of Ablepharus kitaibelii (Bibron & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833) in Bulgaria

2017     ZooNotes 116: 1-4:  Vladislav Vergilov

Abstract. The defensive behavior of the Snake-eyed skink is reported for the first time. It includes different strategies as hiding, spiral winding of the body, moving the tail in a worm-like manner, detaching the tail and limbs, thanatosis and even biting. Data on the observed activities of the species in the wild are also provided.

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On the daily activity of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in two village areas of Bulgaria: a case study

2017     ZooNotes 115: 1-4:  Georgi Dudin

Abstract. The study was carried out by digital camera traps in two village areas of South Bulgaria. Total of 99 photos of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) were made in the villages of Byaga and Isperihovo. They were compared with 1133 photos made in “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park (published by Georgiev et al., 2015). It was evident that there was no any activity during daylight in the villages studied, compared with the natural habitats.

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Rubrapterus bavius (Eversmann, 1832), a butterfly genus and species new to Bulgaria (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

2017     ZooNotes 114: 1-4:  Zdravko Kolev

Abstract. Rubrapterus bavius (Eversmann, 1832), a steppe specialist of conservation concern in Europe, is reported from Sakar Mts. in Bulgaria: the first Bulgarian record of this species and of genus Rubrapterus Korshunov, 1987. The reported population has a remarkably late flight time and appears to be trophically connected to Salvia pratensis Linnaeus, 1753, not yet recorded as a larval host-plant of R. bavius in the wild.

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Updated and corrected list of the inland molluscs of Samothraki Island (N Aegean, Greece) 

2017     ZooNotes 113: 1-4:  Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. A list of all valid and published species of freshwater and terrestrial molluscs from Samothraki Island (N Aegean, Greece) is provided. A total of 41 species of inland Mollusca are known from this island: Bivalvia – 1 species, freshwater snails – 6 species and terrestrial snails -  34 species. Some species remained with unclear taxonomic status and need future studies.

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Avian finds from the Early Neolithic settlement near Kapitan-Dimitrievo village (Pazardzhik Region) 

2017     ZooNotes 112: 1-3:  Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. Two finds of Great bustard (Otis tarda) and Rook (Corvus frugilegus) have been identified among the materials of the kitchen debris from the Early Neolithic (ca. 6000 BP) settlement near Kapitan-Dimitrievo village (Pazardzhik Region). They indicate open grassland habitats in its vicinities.

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Late Neolithic and Late Antiquity avian finds of Chavdarova Cheshma (Simeonovgrad, Haskovo Region) 

2017     ZooNotes 111: 1-3:  Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A total of 6 taxa of 1(2) domestic and 4(5) wild birds have been identified, among them two critically endangered (Anser erythropus and Otis tarda), one endangered (Gyps fulvus) and one vulnerable (Aquila chrysaetos). In addition Gallus gallus domestica and Anser anser ? domestica have been recorded. Chicken find came of Late Antiquity (3-4 century AD), and all other finds are dated Late Neolithic (4900-4850 BC).

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Data on the distribution of freshwater harpacticoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) 

2017     ZooNotes 110: 1-2:  Apostol Apostolov, Ivan Pandourski

Abstract. All available data on the distribution of freshwater harpacticoids (Copepoda) in Grande de Tierra del Fuego Island are summarized. Attheyella (Delachauxiella) nuda Lëffler, 1961 inhabiting wet mosses in the valley of Martial Glacier near Ushuaia is newly established. The site marks the southernmost distribution of the species in Argentina.

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Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae) and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) – an unknown trophobiotic association 

2017     ZooNotes 109: 1-3:  Ilia Gjonov, Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

Abstract. The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades) and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791) (Hemiptera, Issidae) by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798). It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

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Fossil record of Tapirs (Tapirus Brünnich, 1772) (Tapiridae Gray, 1821 - Peryssodactyla Owen, 1848) in Bulgaria 

2017     ZooNotes 108: 1-3:  Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. Fossil record of the tapirs in Bulgaria covers 7 taxa (4 unspecified), the oldest one of Turolian age: Tapirus arvernensis, T. jeanpivetoui, T. balkanicus, as well as Tapirus sp. – 1, 2, 3, and 4 of 10 Late Miocene localities. All records came from Sothwest Bulgaria (South of the Balkan Range and West of the Rila-Rhodopes mountain massif). Cranial fragments (mandibulae and maxillae) are the most often among the identified remains. It is concluded that the Balkans were the region of the most varied tapirid megafauna in the Late Neogene (Miocene) in Europe.

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First record of the genus Dactylobiotus Schuster, 1980 in Bulgaria (Eutardigrada: Murrayidae) 

2017     ZooNotes 107: 1-2:  Dilian Georgiev, Lyubomir Kenderov

Abstract. The first find of a freshwater tardigrade in Bulgaria was reported: unidentified Dactylobiotus specimen from the hyporeal waters of Cherni Iskar River.

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 First exact data on the distribution of saproxylic species Calchaenesthes oblongomaculata (Guérin-Méneville, 1844) (Cerambycidae: Purpuricenini) in Bulgaria 

2017     ZooNotes 106: 1-4:  Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Three male specimens of Calchaenesthes oblongomaculata (Guérin-Méneville, 1844) (Cerambycidae: Purpuricenini) were collected in foothills of Maleshevska Planina Mts., near Kamenitsa Vill. (SW Bulgaria). The individuals were found on the leaves of Downy oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) or flying around the tree. The present record confirms the presence of the species in the country.

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Shell size and population density of Cerastoderma glaucum Poiret 1789 (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in “Pomorie Lake” (Black Sea coast, Bulgaria)

2017     ZooNotes 105: 1-4:  Silvia Kalcheva

Abstract. The seasonal population density and population size structure of Cerastoderma glaucum of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria) has been studied. The length of the shells ranged between 2.00 and 27.00 mm. The highest population density was estimated during spring and was 2062 individuals per m².

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Distribution of Amorphocephala coronata (Germar, 1817) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in Bulgaria

2017     ZooNotes 104: 1-3:  Rostislav Bekchiev, Ognyan Sivilov, Rumyana Kostova, Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

Abstract. All the available data about distribution of the rare myrmecophilous species Amorphocephala coronata in Bulgaria have been summarized, and new localities of the species have been added.

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New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Iskar River Valley, Bulgaria

2017     ZooNotes 103: 1-4:  Lyubomira Lyubomirova

Abstract. The present study gives new data on a poorly studied group of aquatic organisms – water mites. Six species are recorded for the first time for the Bulgarian fauna and one of them is new for the Balkan Peninsula.

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New data and notes on the distribution of Lioderina linearis (Hampe, 1870) (Cerambycidae: Callidiini) in Bulgaria  

2017     ZooNotes 102: 1-4:  Denis Gradinarov, Ognyan Sivilov 

Abstract. New records of Lioderina linearis (Hampe, 1870) in Bulgaria are presented. The species was collected with light traps in five localities from Black Sea Coast, Rila Mts. and Sredna Gora Mts. Available data on the distribution and host plants of the species in the country are summarized. The species is common in coastal region of Bulgaria and seems not to be rare in lower mountain areas inside the country. The species is attracted to light and can be detected successfully with light traps. Known host plants of L. linearis in Bulgaria are species from the genera Amygdalus (Mill.), Juglans L. and Pyrus L.

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Penestoglossa dardoinella (Millière, 1863) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) recorded for the first time in Albania  

2017     ZooNotes 101: 1-3:  Ana Nahirnić, Stoyan Beshkov 

Abstract. In August, 2016 authors spent four nights light collecting in Albania. In this paper we present one new genus and species for Albania - Penestoglossa dardoinella (Millière, 1863).

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Earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae) records from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria)  

2016     ZooNotes 100: 1-4:  Hristo Valchovski 

Abstract. The current study is a contribution to the knowledge of the earthworm diversity from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria). During the investigation 13 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to eight genera. Among them Aporrectodea handlirschi (Rosa, 1897) and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826) proved to be new records from the territory of the Rila Mountain.

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New earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae) records from Vitosha Mts. (Bulgaria)  

2016     ZooNotes 99: 1-3:  Hristo Valchovski, Emiliya Velizarova 

Abstract. The paper deals with earthworm diversity from Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria). During the investigation 10 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to 7 genera. Among them, two taxa are reported for the first time from the explored region. Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826) and Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 are proved to be new records from the territory of Vitosha Mountain.

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First record of endemic earthworm Cernosvitovia rebeli (Rosa, 1897) (Clitellata, Annelida) from western parts of Stara planina Mountains  

2016     ZooNotes 98: 1-3:  Hristo Valchovski

Abstract. The current study deals with earthworm biodiversity of Western Stara planina Mountains. Endemic earthworm species Cernosvitovia rebeli (Rosa, 1897) proved to be new record for the lumbricid fauna of the Western Stara planina Mountains. This is the western occurrence of this rare species on the territory of Bulgaria. The paper proved information about ecology, habitats and distribution of Cernosvitovia rebeli.

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Cadmium (Cd) affects the gill structure and respiration rate of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 

2016     ZooNotes 97: 1-4:  Vesela Yancheva, Ivelin Mollov, Iliana Velcheva, Stela Stoyanova, Elenka Georgieva

Abstract. The main purpose of the present study was to provide some preliminary data on the effects of Cd, which is considered as priority toxic substance in surface waters according to Directive 2008/105/EO on the gill structure and respiration rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under ex situ conditions. We observed significant histological changes, which were grouped as proliferative and degenerative ones, as well as increase in the respiration rate index in the treated with Cd fish, compared with the control. In general, the tested fish species proved to be sensitive to Cd exposure in terms of the studied parameters.

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New data on the distribution of Pilemia tigrina (Mulsant, 1851) (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) in Bulgaria 

2016     ZooNotes 96: 1-3:  Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Single male specimen of Pilemia tigrina (Mulsant, 1851) was collected in 2014 in Vrachanska Planina Mts., under Milanovo Vill. Additional locality of the species, based on collection material, is also reported – near Ivanovo Vill., Shumen region.

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Vitrea neglecta Damjanov et L. Pintér 1969 – genital anatomy of a specimen from Greece 

2016     ZooNotes 95: 1-2:  Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. Two live specimens and few shells of the Pristilomatid snail Vitrea neglecta Damjanov et L. Pintér 1969 were collected at the entrance of the Angitis Springs cave, foothills of Falakro Mts., North Greece. Genital anatomy of one dissected specimen from this population confirms the presence of this species in Greece.

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First earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) record from Sithonia Peninsula (Greece)

2016     ZooNotes 94: 1-3:  Hristo Valchovski

Abstract. The paper deals with the earthworm diversity of Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) proved to be new species for the fauna of Greece and also represents the first earthworm record from Sithonia Peninsula. According to the literature and authors data 14 earthworm taxa are registered from the explored region. The paper underlines lumbricid richness of Chalkidiki Peninsula and provides information about the zoogeographical position of the earthworm species present.

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The first report of Hadena tephroleuca (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Bulgaria

2016     ZooNotes 93: 1-3:  Stoyan Beshkov, Jari Junnilainen

Abstract. Single female specimen of Hadena (Pinkericola) tephroleuca (Boisduval, 1833) was collected in Belassitsa Mts. in SW Bulgaria at an altitude of 1857m at light. This is the first record of this species in Bulgaria. Collected specimen is illustrated here and is deposed in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia (NMNHS).

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A new record of the Blotched snake Elaphe sauromates Pallas, 1811 (Serpentes: Colubridae) from an urbanized habitat in Bulgaria

2016     ZooNotes 92: 1-3:  Borislav Naumov, Nikolay Natchev

Abstract. The current paper reports a new location of the Blotched snake (Elaphe sauromates) in south-east Bulgaria. On 14.05.2016 we found a dead adult specimen in the east part of the town Aytos. To date the species was not recorded for the locus. This is the first record of the Blotched snake in urbanized area and we provide a discussion concerning the distribution and the habitat preferences of E. sauromates in Bulgaria.

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First attempt to understand the effect of pingers on static fishing gear in Bulgarian Black Sea coast

2016     ZooNotes 91: 1-3:  Zornitsa Zaharieva, Venislava Spasova, Genadi Gavrilov

Abstract. Acoustic deterrent devices (pingers) were used on static fishing gear called dalyans in an attempt to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans and/or to reduce depredation in the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Between April and July 2015 dalyans were equipped with harbour porpoise pingers in the northern part of the coast. Observations were carried out on regular bases on active (with pingers) and on control dalyans (without pingers). The preliminary results were positive in reducing damages on fishing gear.

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Newly registered tracks of Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) indicate the presence of resident population in the region of Bolata dere (NE Bulgaria)

2016     ZooNotes 90: 1-3:  Nikolay Natchev

Abstract. The Raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) is an invasive species which was first recorded for the Bulgarian fauna in 1968. To date, data concerning the distribution of the species in Bulgaria are rather scarce and often provided by non specialists (mostly local fishermen and hunters). The present note includes information concerning the presence of Raccoon dogs in the region of Bolata dere (NE Bulgaria). Faeces and footprints were found in the springs of 2014 and 2015. Apparently, the predators are resident inhabitants of the site, so that particular population could be used for field surveys on the biology of the Raccoon dogs in Bulgaria.

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Home range, movements and activity patterns of an exceptionally large male Brown Bear (Ursus arctos L.) in the area of the Bulgarian-Greek border (Western Rhodope Mts.)

2016     ZooNotes 89: 1-3:  Nikolai Spassov, Vassil Ivanov

Abstract. The movements and activity patterns of an exceptionally large brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) were investigated in the area of the Bulgarian-Greek border (Western Rhodope Mts.) after footprints and other signs of its life activities during a field work in the period 2012-2016. Its minimum home range in spring was estimated to at 140-150 km2. Different parts of its home range were occupied seasonally.

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The second record of Panorpa thrakica Willmann, 1976  (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpidae)

2016     ZooNotes 88: 1-4:  Libor Dvořák

Abstract. The author presents the first record of Panorpa thrakica Willmann, 1976 from Bulgaria which is also the second published record of this species. Moreover, this is the second record of any species of the Panorpa aspoecki group outside of Turkey. Two males (one of them dissected) were captured in 1976 in Izgrev (Strandzha Plain, near to Velikovo, Bulgaria), where the other member of the P. aspoecki group (P. schweigeri Willmann, 1975) was recorded as well.

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New animal remains from Pliska, the medieval capital (10 c. AD) of Bulgaria, (Shumen Region, NE Bulgaria)

2016     ZooNotes 87: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A total of 9 taxa (5 birds and 4 mammals) have been identified, among them two endangered avian species - Otis tarda and Falco peregrinus.

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Dinarda dentata (Gravenhorst, 1806) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) new to Bulgaria and an additional site for Lomechusoides strumosus (Fabricius, 1793) in Bulgaria

2016     ZooNotes 86: 1-4: Tom Harrison

Abstract. First record of the myrmecophilous species Dinarda dentata (Gravenhorst, 1806) is reported for Bulgaria. A second site for Lomechusoides strumosus (Fabricius, 1793) and a correction to a previous record is provided.

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Two Records of large specimens of Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Caudata) in Bulgaria

2016     ZooNotes 85: 1-4: Alexander Pulev, George Manolev, Lidia Sakelarieva

Abstract. Two particularly large specimens of Fire Salamander have been registered in southwestern Bulgaria in late winter/early spring. Both of them are adult females with total body length 231 mm, and 219 mm. The two specimens recorded are the largest ones found in Bulgaria so far. Their dimensions are impressive for the entire range of the species. Both specimens have been found during the day in a sunny and dry weather, which has not been registered by other researchers in the cold half of the year in Bulgaria. The winter activity of the species has been confirmed.

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Is the Kotschy’s Gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870) (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) active during the winter?

2015     ZooNotes 84: 1-3: Ivelin Mollov, Dilian Georgiev, Sesil Basheva

Abstract. The current communication reports few cases of unusual winter activity of the Kotschy’s Gecko – Mediodactylus kotschyi rumelicus from the city of Plovdiv and Mediodactylus kotschyi daniliewskii from Hrishteni Village (Stara Zagora District) in Bulgaria.

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Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae  (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Bulgaria

2015     ZooNotes 83: 1-11: Miroslav Antov, Anelia Stojanova

Abstract. This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

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The first report of Japanese oak silkmoth Antheraea yamamai (Guérin-Méneville, 1861) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Montenegro

2015     ZooNotes 82: 1-4: Ana Nahirnić, Stoyan Beshkov

Abstract. Japanese oak silkmoth Antheraea yamamai (Guérin-Méneville, 1861) is reported here for first time in the scientific literature from Montenegro (Republic of Crna Gora). In two localities, not far away each other, moths were collected at light. We report this species from Serbia as well. All collected specimens are males.

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Biology of the blind geobiont scarab beetle genus Chaetonyx Schaum, 1862 (Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) with new distribution records of Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862 from Bulgaria

2015     ZooNotes 81: 1-14: Denis Gradinarov, Yana Petrova, Elena Tasheva-Terzieva, Andrey Frolov

Abstract. Life cycle of the orphnine scarab beetles genus Chaetonyx was recorded for the first time based on the multiyear observations on the populations of its type species, Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862, in riverside habitats at Zemen Gorge region, South-Western Bulgaria. Our observations showed that this geobiont species is common in alluvial soils near Struma River, where it forms large colonies. At the Zemen Gorge, its preferable habitats are sparse riverside forests of Alnus glutinosa L. and Populus nigra L. neighboring grass communities. Larvae, adults and pupae were found up to 50 cm deep with most specimens inhabiting the upper soil layer from 0 to 20 cm deep. The highest recorded density was 89 adults and 581 larvae per 0.25 m2. Oviposition, hatching of the eggs, pupation and emergence of the new adults occur during the summer. Eggs have been found in surface soil layer in July and August, the pupae – mainly in July and August. Larvae of different instars were found in soil during all months of the study period. Adults from the new generation first occur in the beginning of August. In August, September and October adults from different generations can be found together. The main part of the adults seems to die after the reproduction period, and the common lifespan of adults seems to be about a year only. The life cycle of Ch. robustus in investigated habitat seems to be perennial and includes two years as larval stage and one as adult. Tropical Orphninae occupy a number of ecological niches but lack colonial geobiont specialists similar to Chaetonyx.

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Изписване на български географски имена в статии на английски език

2015     ZooNotes 80: 1-4: Димитър Бечев, Дилян Георгиев

Transliteration of Bulgarian geographic names in English papers

Dimitar Bechev, DilIan Georgiev
Abstract. Some recommendations on English transliterations of Bulgarian geographic names were given which can be usable in preparing scientific papers. Examples of the following types of names were presented: I. names well known in English; II. transliterated Bulgarian names: complex names, names of mountains and mountains consisted only by a single massif.

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Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

2015     ZooNotes 79: 1-15: Venelin Nikolov, Petya Ivanova, Nina Dzhembekova, Marina Panayotova, Violin Raykov, Ivan Dobrovolov

Abstract. Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7-enzyme and 1-non-enzyme) assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed.  The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38%) within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448) and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014).  The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS) was (-0.209) and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei) between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474), but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651) and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

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Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from the region of Cape Emine (central Bulgarian Black sea coast). Part III. Spatial distribution and gradient analysis

2015     ZooNotes 78: 1-15: Teodora Teofilova, Nikolai Kodzhabashev

Abstract. The ground beetle fauna of the area of Cape Emine was studied. Over the period 2010 – 2012 adult carabid beetles were collected. The investigation was carried out at 13 sampling sites and pitfall traps were used. During the study altogether 12618 specimens were captured. Mathematical processing of the data by gradient analysis with methods for classification and ordination of the communities was performed. Analysis of distribution of the zoogeographical categories and life forms was done. The primary role of the humidity and vegetation as ecological factors affecting the distribution of the communities of ground beetles was proven.

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Contribution to the knowledge of the gastropods (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) of Ilinska and Plakinska Mountains (Republic of Macedonia)

2015     ZooNotes 77: 1-3: Ivaylo Dedov

Abstract. The work presents results of a collecting trip in July 2008 in the mountains Ilinska and Plakinska (Republic of Macedonia). The work summarizes data for distribution and ecology of 19 species from the mountains. The data collected during the expedition provide the first information for terrestrial gastropods in this region of Macedonia.

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Malacofauna of the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria)

2015     ZooNotes 76: 1-12: Iltsho Kolev, Dilian Georgiev, Ivaylo Dedov

Abstract. Freshwater and terrestrial molluscs were studied at the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria), and 121 species were found. Second records of Bythiospeum iltchokolevi Georgiev & Glöer, 2015, Discus rotundatus (Müller, 1774), and Oxyloma dunkeri (L. Pfeiffer, 1865) in Bulgaria were reported.

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Fossil and subfossil remains of birds and mammals from the Mirizlivka cave (Vidin Region – NW Bulgaria)

2015     ZooNotes 75: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract.  The fossil/subfossil record of Mirizlivka cave numbers 17 taxa – 3 species of birds and 14 species of large mammals, 3 of them disappeared from the recent fauna of Bulgaria, and 6 other globally extinct.

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Случаи на морфологична аномалия на тестиса при бялата риба (Sander lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758) в яз. Тополница (Средна гора, България)

2015     ZooNotes 74: 1-5: Ангел Зайков, Tаня Хубенова

Cases of morphological testis abnormality in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) from dam-lake Topolnitsa (Sredna Gora, Bulgaria)

      2015     ZooNotes 74: 1-5: Angel Zaikov, Tanja  Hubenova

Abstract. The paper presents cases of abnormal morphology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) testis. Three of the investigated 7 males caught in the dam-lake Topolnitsa showed different morphological gonadal alterations. Possible reason for the morphological abnormalities of the male gonads in the pikeperch could be the pollution of this particularе freshwater ecosystem with different industrial wastes such as heavy metals and pesticides.


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Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

2015     ZooNotes 73: 1-4: Nikolai Spasov, Vladimir Peykov, Pavel Simeonov

Abstract.  On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria) the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

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Soluble proteins in Messor structor (Latreille, 1798) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations from Bulgaria – genetic variability and possible usage as population-genetic markers

2015     ZooNotes 72: 1-9: Ivan Stoyanov, Evgenia Ivanova, Penka Vasileva, Teodora Staykova

Abstract. The genetic variability of ant species determined as Messor structor (Latreille, 1798) or close to it (“M. cf. structor”) from Bulgaria has been studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of five soluble protein systems (Sp-1, Sp-2, Sp-3, Sp-4 and Sp-5) corresponding to 5 loci. Four of the studied loci were found to be polymorphic. Two alleles were detected at Sp-1 and Sp-2 loci and three – at Sp-3 and Sp-5. The observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He) ranged from 0.0 (Yambol) to 0.140 (Topolovo) and from 0.170 (Nova Zagora) to 0.401 (Tvarditsa), respectively. The calculated mean value of inbreeding coefficient (FIS) was 0.8263 and demonstrated high level of inbreeding within populations, which correlated with a low level of observed heterozygosity compared to the expected one. The estimated mean fixation index (FST) value was 0.2746. Allele frequencies of soluble protein loci were used to estimate Nei’s (1972) genetic distance and to obtain the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) dendrograms, where Topolovo and Nova Zagora populations were grouped separately than other populations.

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Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from the region of Cape Emine (central Bulgarian Black sea coast). Part II. Ecological parameters and community structure

2015     ZooNotes 71: 1-12: Teodora Teofilova

Abstract. For the first time an ecological study of the carabid fauna of the area of Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black sea coast) was conducted. Over the period 2010 – 2011 adult carabid beetles were collected. The investigation was carried out at 7 sampling sites and pitfall traps were used. During the study altogether 6245 specimens were captured. The greatest number of both species and specimens was found in the steppe-like habitat, least – in the pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) plantation. Indices for α- and β-diversity were calculated. The dominant structure of the whole carabid complex showed the presence of two eudominant, three dominant, two subdominant, eleven recedent and 85 subrecedent species. The analysis of the sex structure showed the total prevalence of males over females. Cluster analysis indicated a low percentage of taxonomic similarity between the communities, which reflected the diversity of the landscape.

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Movement and activity pattern of a brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) tracked in Central Balkan Mountain, Bulgaria

2015     ZooNotes 70: 1-4: Genadi Gavrilov

Abstract. First data about movement of brown bear in Bulgaria, based on 10 days tracking period of female without cubs on the territory of Central Balkan, Stara ,planina Mountain. Bear is active 46% of a 24-hour period, traveling 4 km per day in average. Speed is varying in different habitats and is up to 6.5 km/h in the grasslands.

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On the activity of two medium-sized canids: the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Natural Bark “Sinite Kamani” (Bulgaria) revealed by camera traps

2015     ZooNotes 69: 1-4: Dilian Georgiev, Alexandar Mechev, Elena Stoeva, Georgi Dilovski, Anelia Pavlova

Abstract. Daylight activity in both species was often registered during the cold seasons. Foxes were registered to be active between 7-9h and 12-14h, while the jackals – during the whole day. Activity of both predators was rising during the night. The number of photographs increased from around 17h and activity was high until morning around 9-10h.

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Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from the region of Cape Emine (Central Bulgarian Black sea coast). Part I. Taxonomic and zoogeographic structure, life forms, habitat and humidity preferences

2015     ZooNotes 68: 1-18: Teodora Teofilova, Emilia Markova, Nikolai Kodzhabashev

Abstract. For the first time the carabid fauna of the area of Cape Emine (the middle of the Bulgarian Black sea coast) was studied. Over the period 2010 – 2012 adult carabid beetles were collected. Investigations were performed at 13 sampling sites and pitfall traps were used. During the study a total of 12618 specimens were captured. They belonged to 134 species, classified into 46 genera, 18 tribes, and 3 subfamilies. Dyschirius rufipes Dejean, 1825 and Laemostenus janthinus (Duftschmid, 1812) were reported as new species for the carabid fauna of Bulgaria. Three species were new for the fauna of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Fifty-four species were defined as new for the area of Cape Emine. Two endemics were found: Pterostichus merkli Frivaldszky, 1879 (Bulgarian endemic) and Cychrus semigranosus balcanicus Hopffgarten, 1881 (Balkan endemic). Species of ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging, degree of endemism and rarity, habitat and humidity preferences; the life forms they refer to were determined.

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Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of the Agro-ecosystems in Plovdiv Region (Bulgaria)

2014     ZooNotes 67: 1-4: Ognyan Todorov

Abstract. Eleven Aphidiinae genera and 23 species from 197 aphidiids were identified. Six species of them are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Thirty two plant-aphid-parasitoid associations are reported.

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Two Lomechusini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) species new to Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 66: 1-2: Tom Harrison, Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

Abstract. First records of the myrmecophilous species Lomechusoides strumosus Fabricius, 1793 and Lomechusa paradoxa Gravenhorst, 1806 are reported for Bulgaria. Lomechusoides strumosus is the only member of the genus in Bulgaria while Lomechusa paradoxa joins L. emarginata (Paykull, 1789) as the second member of the genus Lomechusa. Both beetle species were found in nests of Formica ants.

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Animal remains of the Late Antiquity settlement near Dyakovo Village (Kyustendil Region (SW Bulgaria)

2014     ZooNotes 65: 1-7: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. From a total of 102 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ~250 AD – ~550 AD have been identified 13 taxa (4 wild species - Bison bonasus, Cervus elaphus, ? Cervus dama and Canis lupus) and 9 domestic forms – Bos taurus, Capra hircus, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Equus asinus, Sus domesticus and Canis familiaris).

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First record of Trypanosoma infection in Mediterranean mouse (Mus macedonicus Petrov & Ružić, 1983) in Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 64: 1-6: Vesela Mitkovska, Tsenka Chassovnikarova, Hristo Dimitrov

Abstract. The study presents a Trypanosoma infection in Mediterranean mouse (Mus macedonicus Petrov & Ružić, 1983) from Plovdiv region (Bulgaria). The average established prevalence of the parasite in Mus macedonicus was 23.5 %, whereas the infection rate was lower in female (11.1%) compared to male (37.5%) individuals. All observed parasite forms are trypomastigotes, possessing the morphological characteristics of the sub-genus Herpetosoma (Stercoraria section), to which T. lewisi-like parasites belong. These features are: free flagellum, ‘‘C shape’’ of the parasite with size about 25 ± 5 μm, clear visible undulating membrane, subterminal kinetoplast with oval shape, anterior located nucleus. These morphological characteristics and the absence of infection in the other investigated rodents, hosting other Trypanosoma species, allow us to provide evidence-based assumption that the registered parasite is Trypanosoma musculi. Further studies with molecular methods are required to confirm the registered species.

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New Quaternary remains of terrestrial vertebrates of some caves in Bulgaria 

2014     ZooNotes 63: 1-3: Dilian Georgiev, Lybomir Yankov, Tanyo Tanev, Dimitar Kostov, Todor Madzarov, Georgi                      Dilovski

Abstract. New data on the occurrence of some terrestrial mammals and amphibians  collected from 15 caves in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts (4 caves), Stara Planina Mts (7 caves), and Rhodopes Mts (4 caves) was reported. Evidence for breeding of cave bears in/around the Kokalenata Cave was registered as finding of a skull fragment of a single juvenile specimen.

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Contribution to the study of marine harpacticoid fauna (Crustacea, Copepoda) of Iceland

2014     ZooNotes 62: 1-5: Apostol Apostolov

Abstract.The author reports 19 harpacticoid species (Crustacea, Copepoda) sampled from the marine coastal and brackish waters on the Icelandic shore of the Atlantic Ocean in June and July 2004.

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New locality of Eurasian stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758) during the breeding season in Northwest Bulgaria 

2014     ZooNotes 61: 1-2: Georgi Stojanov, Krasimir Donchev

Abstract. We describe a new locality of Eurasian stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus (Linnaeus, 1758) during breeding season near the town of Berkovitsa, in the SPA BG 0002090 Berkovitsa. The site is new and unknown so far, and is the third site in the Northwestern Bulgaria where the species is registered, and the only one from the interior of North Bulgaria.

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First records of Psammodius asperoides Pittino, 2007 and Rhyssemus annaedicatus Pierotti, 1980 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) in Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 60: 1-4: Łukasz  Minkina, Cezary Nowak, Marek Bidas

Abstract. Psammodius asperoides Pittino, 2007 and Rhyssemus annaedicatus Pierotti, 1980 are reported from Bulgaria for the first time. New locality for Rhyssemus annaedicatus Pierotti, 1980 is given..

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Diversity of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Sofia Plain, Bulgaria 

2014     ZooNotes 59: 1-9: Hristo Valchovski

Abstract. A rich earthworm material from 47 different localities in Sofia Plain has been elaborated. During the investigations between the years 2010 and 2013, thirteen earthworm species and subspecies were collected altogether, belonging to seven genera. Among them, three new records are reported. Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885), Eisenia lucens (Waga, 1857) and Octodrilus transpadanus (Rosa, 1884) proved to be new to the earthworm fauna of Sofia plain. 

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Animal remains of the Neolithic Ritual Burial Complex near Krum Village (Haskovo Region, SE Bulgaria)

2014     ZooNotes 58: 1-6: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. From a total of 389 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ca. 6500-6300 B.P. have been identified 7 taxa: Lesser mole rat, Eurasian beaver, Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig, and Donkey.

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Chaetonyx robustus (Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) – new natural host of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae)

2014     ZooNotes 57: 1-4: Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 was isolated from single larva of Chaetonyx robustus Schaum, 1862 (Scarabaeidae: Orphninae) from soil of a riverside habitat near town of Zemen, SW Bulgaria. Insects from the subfamily Orphninae are reported for the first time as natural hosts of heterorhabditids. In laboratory conditions larvae of C. robustus exhibited a low susceptibility to nematodes, which probably results from adaptation to avoid nematode invasion, arising from continuous coexistence in natural habitats.

Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 56: 1-6: Masumi Hisano, Evgeni Raichev, Stanislava Peeva, Dian  Georgiev, Hiroshi Tsunoda, Ryuichi Masuda, Yayoi Kaneko

Abstract. We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003) of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females) were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

First study on the zooplankton of the Kerid (Kerið) Crater Lake, Iceland

2014     ZooNotes 55: 1-3: Vesela Evtimova, Ivan Pandourski, Apostol Apostolov

Abstract. We studied the qualitative composition of zooplankton of the Kerid Crater Lake. We found 10 taxa from which five rotifers and two lower crustaceans. Three of the recorded species are new to the freshwater fauna of Iceland: the rotifer species Keratella cf. americana Carlin, 1943 and Colurella sulcata (Stenroos, 1898), and the crustacean harpacticoid Bryocamptus (Bryocamptus) minutus (Claus, 1863).

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Late Holocene distribution of the European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus, 1761) in Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 54: 1-3: Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. A review of the species’ discovery, its breeding range and records, and the subfossil records in Bulgaria is presented.

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Faunistical records of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera) from Bulgaria and Republic of Macedonia

2014     ZooNotes 53: 1-7 Ognyan Sivilov, Aleksandra Cvetkovska-Gorgievska

Abstract. New  faunistical  data  about  4  species  and  genera  of  the  family  Tenebrionidae  are presented  as  follows:  one  new  species  for  the  fauna  of  Balkan  Peninsula  –  Eledonoprius serrifrons  (Reitter,  1890);  three  genera  and  three  species  are  new  records  for  Bulgaria  – Eledona  agricola  (Herbst,  1783),  Eledonoprius  serrifrons  and  Latheticus  oryzae  Waterhouse,  1880; and a new genus and species to the fauna of the Republic of Macedonia  -  Hymenalia  graeca  Seidlitz, 1896. Distribution maps and photos of these species are also provided. The male genitalia of E. agricola are illustrated for the first time.

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Records of European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis (Rafinesque, 1814) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 52: 1-3 Ivan Pandourski

Abstract. Seven localities of registration of European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis (Rafinesque, 1814) on the territory of Bulgaria are recorded. For the first time the species is reported in Rila Mountain. Its relatively high flying activity is registered during the late autumnal period (end of November) in Eastern Rhodopes Mountains. 

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The first record of scorpion-fly Panorpa schweigeri Willmann, 1975 (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpidae) from Bulgaria

2014     ZooNotes 51: 1-3 Libor Dvořák

Abstract. The author presents the first record of Panorpa schweigeri from Bulgaria as well as the first record of any species of the Panorpa aspoecki group outside Turkey. Two females (one dissected) were caught in 1973 in Kalovo (Strandzha Mountain), ca. 30 km NE of the locality Velika near Kırklareli in Turkey, where P. schweigeri was published in original description. 

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Mollusca (terrestrial and marine Gastropods et Bivalvia) from Morocco

2013     ZooNotes 50: 1-5 Atanas Irikov, Georgi Gerdzhikov

Abstract. Fifteen samples with molluscs are collected from various habitats and regions of Morocco, located in the seashore zone, as well as the central and the eastern parts of the country. We recorded 21 terrestrial and 15 marine species of molluscs. New localities and new species for the fauna of Morocco and the African continent are reported for the first time.

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On distribution area of Asovia maeoticaria (Alphéraky, 1876) (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Geometridae)

2013     ZooNotes 49: 1-2 MIlan Djurić, Boženka Hric

Abstract. Species Asovia maeoticaria (Alphéraky, 1876) was described from southeast Ukraine and subsequently recorded in Bulgaria, Greece, European part of Russia, parts of Turkey and southeast Romania. That led to the conclusion it has Ponto-Mediterranean distribution. Authors discovered the species on 7 June 2013 in the village of Kamenica, SE Serbia, making that conclusion doubtful since the location is distant from any seashore.

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A record of Viviparus syriacus (Gastropoda: Viviparidae) in Turkey

2013     ZooNotes 48: 1-3 Dilian Georgiev, Peter Glöer

Abstract. First record of the fossil species Viviparus syriacus from Turkey was reported: deposits of the Asi Nehri river north of Antioch town, about 20 km west of the Syrian border, N36 14 54.0 E36 11 59.3, 127 m alt.

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Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 47: 1-5 Liuben Domozetski

Abstract. At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

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First records of Cecilioides tumulorum (Gastropoda: Ferussaciidae) in Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 46: 1-6 Dilian Georgiev, Slaveya Stoycheva

Abstract. First records of Cecilioides tumulorum (Bourguignat, 1956) in Bulgaria were reported: 1. deposits of Karabaiska River, near village of Sladun, Sakar Mountain; 2. deposits of Stara Reka River, near Peshtera town, Western Rhodopes Mountain; 3. deposits of Byala Reka River, near village of Mandritza, Eastern Rhodopes Mountain; 4. Ivaylovgrad town, Eastern Rhodopes Mountain. After this report, the known species from the genus Cecilioides in Bulgaria are: C. acicula, C. janii, C. spelaeus and C. tumulorum.

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New data on the distribution of Hoplia stenolepis (Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) in Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 45: 1-4 Yana Petrova, Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. The Balkan endemic species Hoplia stenolepis Apfelbeck, 1912 is reported from two localities in Kresna and Zemen Gorge, SW Bulgaria. The Zemen Gorge locality is the most northern for the species in Bulgaria to date. At the Zemen Gorge the species is found in numerous aggregations of male specimens on different grasses. No feeding or mating activity was observed.

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Contribution to the knowledge for distribution of Criodrilus lacuum (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Criodrilidae) from Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 44: 1-3 Hristo Valchovski

Abstract. All known records of Criodrilidae earthworms in the country were presented. The current knowledge for distribution of family Criodrilidae in Bulgaria was summarized. In this paper we report new locality of Criodrilus lacuum Hoffmeister, 1845. Surprisingly this species was found in one of the parks in Sofia Town. New data confirm its presence in Sofia Plane. Also information about ecology, habitat type locality and short description of Criodrilus lacuum was provided.

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Localities of valvatiform hydrobiids (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 43: 1-4 Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. In this paper three new localities of unidentified valvatiform hydrobiids are reported in Bulgaria: Glava Panega Spring (Zlatna Panega Town), Rushovata Cave (near Glogovo Village), and Mandrata Cave (near Chavdartsi Village).

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Diet of the Stone marten (Martes foina Erxl.) in two large cities of the Upper Thracian Lowland, South Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 42: 1-4 Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. The fruits of domestic and wild plants comprise the main food of the urban Stone martens. The secondary food varied during seasons. Insects, birds and mammals (small and bone remains of large mammals) occurred in the feces. Amphibians and reptiles were eaten occasionally.

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New localities of Eastern Montpellier Snake – Malpolon insignitus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) from Southwestern Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 41: 1-4 Lyuben Domozetski

Abstract. The current report presents three new localities of the Eastern Montpellier Snake in Bulgaria. Two of them are situated along the valley of Mesta River whereas the third one is on the slopes of Belasitsa Mountain. The localities along Mesta River are of great interest, because they represent the valley as natural corridor for penetration and distribution of mediteranean species in Bulgaria. Two of the localities arouse interest because of their high altitude.

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Additions and corrections to the species list of the Bulgarian Chloropinae (Diptera: Chloropidae)

2013     ZooNotes 40: 1-4 Venelin Beschovski

Abstract. One genus (Elachiptereicus) and 8 Chloropinae species are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. With these new data total 20 genera with 81 species are established to subfamily Chloropinae in Bulgaria at the time being.

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New records of some rare rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia) from South-East Bulgaria

2013     ZooNotes 39: 1-4 Nedko Nedyalkov

Abstract. New records of three rare rodent species from SE Bulgaria are reported, as follows: European Snow Vole (Chionomys nivalis) – Madzharovo Town, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG01); Gray Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) –Matochina Village (UTM MG 63); and Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse (Myomimus roachi) –Malki Voden Village, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG11). All three species were found in the food remains of two owl species: the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), and the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca).

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Dolichopus species (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) in the Еntomological Collection of the Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

2013     ZooNotes 38: 1-4 Venelin Beschovski 

Abstract. Total 22 species are presented, 3 of which are not from Bulgaria (D. austriacus and D. longicornis from Slovakia, and D. popularis from Hungary); other 5 species except in Bulgaria are collected and from Slovakia (D. argyrotarsis, D. plumipes and D. ungulatus), Romania (D. diadema) and Russia (D. lepidus).

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First record of Grossuana angeltsekovi Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 (Gastropoda: Risooidea) from Greece

 2013     ZooNotes 37: 1-4 Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. In this paper it is reported the first finding of a representative of the genus Grossuana from the Greek Rhodopes Mts. – Grossuana angeltsekovi Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 which is and the first record of the species for this country. The locality is a karstic spring, Rodopi county, Papikio Oros, near Vronti (= 4 km N of Kerasia) (445 m a.s.l.). The material is stored in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

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Development of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in larvae of Chaetonyx robustus (Coleoptera: Orphnidae)

2012     ZooNotes 36: 1-4 Denis Gradinarov, Yana Petrova

Abstract. Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, 1934) infects and reproduces in larvae of Chaetonyx robustus Schaum, 1862 (Coleoptera: Orphnidae), isolated from soil of the same habitat. Insects of the family Orphnidae are reported for the first time as hosts of entomopathogenic nematodes. Lack of establishment of natural infected larvae may be due to the lower susceptibility of C. robustus to nematode invasion and random factors related to the spatial distribution of infective juveniles in soil.

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First record of Iphthiminus italicus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in Bulgaria

2012     ZooNotes 35: 1-4 Ognyan Sivilov

Abstract. Iphthiminus italicus croaticus (Truqui, 1857) is reported from Bulgaria for the first time. Genus Iphthiminus Spilman, 1973 is also new to the Bulgarian fauna.

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Asilidae (Diptera: Brachycera) – natural hosts of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) at the Zemen Gorge region

2012     ZooNotes 34: 1-4 Denis Gradinarov

Abstract. Invaded with entomopathogenic nematode S. feltiae (Filipjev, 1934) larva from family Asilidae was found in an alluvial soil of riverside forest in the region of Zemen Gorge, SW Bulgaria. It is the first record of Asilidae as natural hosts of S. feltiae. It seems that insects from the family Asilidae are generally among the suitable hosts of the genus Steinernema Travassos, 1927. Members of Asilidae are important predators in the soil, and their susceptibility to nematode invasion must be considered when assessing the impact of entomopathogenic nematodes on beneficial soil insects.

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The Bulgarian Odonata database – current status, organisation and a case study new entries


2012     ZooNotes 33: 1-25 Yordan Kutsarov, Dimitar Bechev, Rosen Kostadinov, Milen Marinov

Abstract. Bulgarian Odonata database is analysed for the period of the last 10 years. All new entries are summarised in individual species graphs representing the trends in data compilations. Special attention is paid on the role of communities in this process with a single study case which is evident of how a small contribution could elucidate important new information on some underexplored areas. It is concluded that for the past 10 years mountain areas and large Bulgarian rivers have been understudied. These should be the priority target areas in the investigations undertaken in near future.

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Records of Oedemeridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) species from Strandzha Mountain (Bulgaria and Turkey)

2012     ZooNotes 32: 1-5 Ognyan Sivilov

Abstract. A list of 16 species from 5 genera of the family Oedemeridae and their localities in Strandzha Mountain was presented, five from which were reported for the first time to the mountain.

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Sub-recent avian remains from two cave localities of the Devetashko Plateau (Lovech Region, CN Bulgaria)

2012     ZooNotes 31: 1-3 Zlatozar Boev 

Abstract. Eighteen bone finds of 6 species (incl. one domestic form) of two cave localities from the Devetashko Plateau have been examined.                           

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  Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Triplax Herbst, 1793 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) in Bulgaria

2012     ZooNotes 30: 1-6 Rostislav Bekchiev, Koen Smets, Luc Crevecoeur 

Abstract. New distribution data about nine species of the genus Triplax Herbst, 1793 in Bulgaria are reported. The species Triplax scutellaris Charpentier, 1825 is new for the fauna of the country. The biology, distribution and conservation status of several species are discussed. For the first time, a complete list of all nine Triplax species present in Bulgaria is given.

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  Two genera of Long-legged Flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) new for the fauna of Bulgaria

2012     ZooNotes 29: 1-2  Venelin Beschovski

Abstract. Two species, belonging to two genera are reported for the first time in Bulgaria.

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 Another case of melanism in the Grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (Reptilia: Colubridae) from Bulgaria

2012     ZooNotes 28: 1-3  Ivelin Mollov

Abstract. A melanistic specimen of Natrix natrix from Plovdiv, Bulgaria was found. This is the third recorded case of melanism in the Grass snake in Bulgaria. Short morphological descriptions of the specimen, as well as some taxonomical and ecological comments are given.

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Unusual late mass occurrence of the Common Swift (Apus apus (Linnaeus, 1758)) (Aves: Apodidae) in Sofia (Bulgaria)

2012     ZooNotes 27: 1-2  Zlatozar Boev

Abstract. An observation of about 120 Common Swifts over the central part of the Sofia City on 15 October is reported. 

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First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Bulgaria

2011     ZooNotes 26: 1-4  Elena Tasheva - Terzieva, Maria Yovkova, Anelia Pencheva

Abstract. Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata,  Asplenium nidus  and  Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out.  Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.  

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  Checklist of the Bulgarian Bruchinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

 2011     ZooNotes 25: 1-7  Anelia Stojanova, Zoltán György

Abstract. Checklist of Bulgarian Bruchinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) based on published data till 2011 is presented. Eighty-five species belonging to nine genera are listed.

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Check list of the Bulgarian minor freshwater snails (Gastropoda: Risooidea) with some ecological and zoogeographical notes

2011     ZooNotes 24: 1-4  Dilian Georgiev

 Abstract. A synopsis and critical overview of all the literature on the freshwater minor snails (Gastropoda: Risooidea) of Bulgaria was made. A check list of 49 species known till now in the country with the ecological and zoogeorgraphical categories to which the species belong was provided.

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Ricania japonica Melichar, 1898 – a representative of family Ricaniidae (Homoptera, Fulgoromorpha), new to the fauna of Bulgaria

2011     ZooNotes 23: 1-3  Ilia Gjonov

Abstract. For first time there is a new record of a representative of family Ricaniidae on theterritory of Bulgaria. The species Ricania japonica Melichar, 1898 was collected in SoutheastBulgaria near to the Black Sea coast.

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First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota) on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Bulgaria

 2011     ZooNotes 22: 1-6   Albena Lapeva-Gjonova, Sergi Santamaria

Abstract. The myrmecophilous fungi  Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and  Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) are reported for the first time from Bulgaria.  Rickia wasmannii was found on  Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798),  C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and  C. pilicornis  (Roger, 1859). Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna. 

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New records of myrmecophilous beetle Paussus turcicus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Southeastern Balkans

2011     ZooNotes 21: 1-3   Albena Lapeva-Gjonova, Rumyana Kostova, Borislav V. Guéorguiev

 Abstract. The rare myrmecophilous beetle Paussus turcicus I. Frivaldszky von Frivald, 1835 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) is reported in three new localities in Bulgaria and one in the European part of Turkey. It has been found in nests of the typical ant host  Pheidole pallidula (Nylander, 1849) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). It is reported for first time from Sakar and Eastern Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria.

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Case of alarm vocalization in a colony of Microtus guentheri (Danford & Alston, 1880) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae) from Southern Bulgaria

2011     ZooNotes 20: 1-3   Ivan Pandourski 

Abstract. The main frequency characteristics of alarm vocalization in Guenter’s vole Microtus guentheri (Danford & Alston, 1880), expressed by single whistle signal are presented. The alarm call was recorded in a colony of Guenter’s vole in the valley of Byala reka River in Eastern Rhodopes Mountains, Sothern Bulgaria. The start of the call is explosive and marked frequency modulated, followed by uniform frequency plateau with narrow bandwidth of 2.3 KHz and maximum energy at 15.4 KHz.

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Comparison of the eggs size between two subspecies of the Kotschy’s Gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870) (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) in Bulgaria

2011     ZooNotes 19: 1-4  Ivelin Mollov

Abstract. The current study compares the egg size (length, width, egg volume and clutch size) between two subspecies of the Kotschy’s Gecko – Mediodactylus kotschyi rumelicus and Mediodactylus kotschyi daniliewskii from Bulgaria. Our results showed that M. k. rumelicus from Plovdiv has bigger eggs, compared to M. k. daniliewskii from Sozopol, The South Black Sea Coast and Ukraine, regarding length, width and egg volume. The clutch size between the two subspecies both from Bulgaria and Ukraine is very similar and contains average of 2 eggs.

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Study on the Stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae) population in the Dospat Dam (Western Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria)

2011     ZooNotes 18: 1-5   Angel Zaikov, Tanja Hubenova, Ivan Iliev, Penka Vasileva, Ivailo Piskov

Abstract. In present paper the results from a study on the Stone crayfish in the Dospat Dam were represented. During the study period a total of 551 stone crayfish were caught (328 males and 223 females) by traps. The size-weight characteristics of the population were established, as well as the determination of its relative density (CPUE), and the ratio between the males and the females.

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Изследване върху популацията на Eзерния рак Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae) в кариерен водоем в района на с. Бошуля (Горнотракийска низина, България)

2011     ZooNotes 17: 1-4  Ангел Зайков, Таня Хубенова, Иван Илиев, Ивайло Писков

Study on the narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae) population in a sand-pit Lake near the village of Boshulya (Upper Thracian Lowland, Bulgaria)

Abstract. The paper represents the results of investigation on the narrow-clawed crayfish population in the sand-pit Lake near village of Boshulya (Upper Thracian Lowland, Bulgaria). The number of crayfish (925) caught showed a high density of their population (mean CPUE=14.69). Individuals with a body weight between 20.1 and 30.0 g predominated the sample. They were 38% of the total catch. With the lowest percent (1%) were the groups with body weight 70.1 – 80.0 g and this one over 80 g. The average ovarian eggs number (absolute fecundity) was 228.85 (min. 144, max. 294)

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  New localities of four Bulgarian endemic Hydrobiidae species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Risooidea)

2011     ZooNotes 16: 1-4  Dilian Georgiev

Abstract. New localities of  Belgrandiella pussila  Angelov, 1959;  Belgrandiella angelovi Pintér, 1968;  Bythiospeum copiosus  (Angelov, 1972) and Grossuana thracica  Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 were reported in Bulgaria. Some notes on the generic position of Belgrandiella angelovi and Bythiospeum copiosus were done.

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 Contribution to the fauna of Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Bulgaria

2011     ZooNotes 15: 1-8  Irina Strakhova, Zoya Yefremova, Peter Boyadzhiev

Abstract. Twelve species of genus Elasmus Westwood are presented; eleven of them are newrecords for Bulgaria. Bulgaria is the second country where Elasmus bistrigatus Graham,1995 and E. longiclava Graham, 1995 were collected.

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Ново късно-плейстоценско находище на алпийски козирог (Capra ibex L.) (Mammalia: Bovidae) в България

2010     ZooNotes 14: 1-4   Дилян Георгиев , Славея Стойчева 

New Late Pleistocene locality of the Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex L.) (Mammalia: Bovidae) in Bulgaria

 Abstract. There were a total of 12 localities of fossil Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) in Bulgaria till now, all of Late Pleistocene. Most of them were from the West part of Stara Planina Mountain. The paper reports the easternmost cave locality of this species from the Pchena Cave (Tvardishki Balkan area, Stara Planina Mnt.), near the town of Tvarditsa. The find represents a cranial fragment, bearing the horn shafts.

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An illustrated key to the Bulgarian freshwater crayfish species of family Astacidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

2010     ZooNotes 13: 1-4  Angel Zaikov

Abstract. A key for the 3 crayfish species of the family Astacidae (Crustacea, Decapoda) found in Bulgaria: Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823; Astacus astacus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) is presented. More important identification characters are illustrated with original photographs.

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Изследване върху популацията на Речния рак Astacus astacus (Linnaeus, 1758) в река Ръждавец (Стара планина, България)

2010     ZooNotes 12: 1-4   Ангел Зайков, Таня Хубенова, Иван Илиев, Ивайло Писков

Investigation on noble crayfish Astacus astacus (Linnaeus, 1758) population in River Razhdavets (Balkan Mountain, Bulgaria)

Abstract. This article points out the results of the conducted investigation on the noble crayfish population in Razhdavets River (Balkan mountain, Bulgaria). The number of caught crayfish shows relatively high density of the population (CPUE = 2.65). A predominance of the individuals with body weight between 20.1 and 30.0 g was established. They form 27 % of the total catch. The lowest share have the groups with body weight 70.1 – 80.0 g (2 %) and this over 80 g (2 %). The mean body weight of the crayfish was 31.34 g (39.29 g for the males and 25.12 g for the females) with total length 9.01 cm (9.42 cm for the males and 8.68 cm for the females).

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  New data for Omoglymmius germari (Ganglbauer, 1892) (Rhysodidae: Coleoptera) in Bulgaria

2010     ZooNotes 11: 1-3   Rostislav Bekchiev

Abstract. A new data about the distribution in Bulgaria of the rare species Omoglymmius germari is given. His nature conservation value is discussed.

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Изследване върху популацията на Поточния рак Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) в Сърнена река (Западни Родопи, България)

2010     ZooNotes 10: 1-4   Ангел Зайков, Таня Хубенова, Иван Илиев, Пенка Василева, Ивайло Писков

Investigation on stone crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Schrank, 1803) population in River Sarnena (Western Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria)

Abstract. During the study 116 stone crayfish specimens (100 males and 16 females) were caught by traps. Mean body weight for males 26.18±6.7 g and 16.97±6.4 g for females was established. The value of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for the crayfish population in River Sarnena was 1.93.

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A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis L., 1758) (Reptilia: Anguidae) from Bulgaria

2010     ZooNotes 9: 1-4   Ivelin Mollov

Abstract. During our study we identified 23 prey items in 12 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Anguis fragilis with average number of prey items per stomach 2.87. The most important prey components are snails and slugs (Gastropoda) with 39.14% and beetles (Coleoptera) with 21.72%. The estimated trophic niche breadth is very high – 19.46. The Slow Worm forages primarily at dawn or twilight, and the feeding is most intensive in the summer season. It can be considered “swallowing” predator and a “polyphage” to some extend, capturing only slowly moving prey.

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 New localities of Quaternary fossil Bears (Ursus sp. L.) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae)

2010     ZooNotes 8: 1-4   Dilian Georgiev, Liubomir Yankov, Slaveya Stoycheva, Stanimira Deleva, Pavlin Zhelev, Anelia Pavlova, Mariela Zagorska

Abstract. Bear bones were reported for first time in four Bulgarian caves: Mazata (near Hristo Danovo village, Stara Planina Mnt.) - Ursus cf ingressus, Ursus sp., Kokalenata (near Bulgarka hut, Stara Planina Mnt.) - Ursus cf ingressus, Kiliykite (near Stanchov Han village, Stara Planina Mnt.) - Ursus sp. and Vodnata Modarska (near the Lilkovo village, Western Rhodopes Mnt.) - Ursus spelaeus species complex.

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Flower visitation of fungus gnats from the genera Antlemom, Asindulum and Macrorrhyncha (Diptera: Keroplatidae):
published data and a new record

2010     ZooNotes 7: 1-3  Dimitar Bechev

Abstract. The literature data about flower visitation of species from the fungus gnats genera Antlemon, Asindulum and Macrorrhyncha are summarized and a new record for Macrorrhyncha flava on Heracleum verticillatum is given.

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 A New Locality of the Italian Wall Lizard Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810) from Turkey

 2009     ZooNotes 6: 1-3   Ivelin Mollov

Abstract. The current paper reviews the current distribution of the Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) in Turkey. A new locality at Güzelyalı Belediyesi Resort, south-west of Mudanya City in the country is reported.

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 A record of Horned viper Vipera ammodytes (L.) in the diet of the Stone marten Martes foina (Erxl.)

2009     ZooNotes 5: 1-2  Dilian Georgiev, Evgenii Raychev

Abstract. Among undigested prey remains in Stone marten’s Martes foina (Erxl.) faeces (n=47), collected in Sakar Mountain (near Sladun Village) a single lower jaw from a Horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was found. The rest of taxa registered in the Rock marten’s diet among the faecas were: Insceta indet., Lacerta sp., Pseudopus apodus, Aves indet., Dryomis nitedula, Sylvaemus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., and fruits of Rosa sp., Rubus sp., and Pyrus sp. The percent frequency of the main prey groups in the faeces were as follows: Mammalia (n=35, 74.5%), Aves (n=16, 34.0%), Reptilia (n=4, 8.5%), Insecta (n=4, 8.5%), and fruits (n=5, 10.6%).

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 A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758)

2009     ZooNotes 4: 1-4   Ivelin Mollov, Peter Boyadziev 

Abstract. During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%), followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%), as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida) which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

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 Night-active aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Bulgaria

2009     ZooNotes 3: 1-2  Ognian Todorov  

Abstract. Seven species of Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera) are collected with light trap. The trap was situated in Parvenets Village (Plovdiv District, Bulgaria) near by crops.

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First record of Bolitophila japonica (Diptera: Bolitophilidae) for continental Asia

2009     ZooNotes 2: 1-2   Dimitar Bechev

Abstract. Bolitophila (Bolitophila) japonica (Okada, 1934) is reported for the first time for continental Asia in Nepal. This is also the first record of Bolitophilidae for the Himalayas.

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Видовете от Ctenophorinae (Diptera: Tipulidae) във фауната на България

2009     ZooNotes 1: 1-3   Димитър Бечев

The species of Ctenophorinae (Diptera: Tipulidae) in the fauna of Bulgaria

Abstract. List of the species of Ctenophorinae subfamily, known from Bulgaria is given, including Ctenophora elegans Meigen, 1818, species reported for Bulgaria, but not presented in Fauna Europaea and Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World for the country. Ctenophora flaveolata (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time to the fauna of Bulgaria.

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